In the 12th Century the cities of Southern Levant, Syria, Cyprus, Anatolia, Crete and Greece were connected through a series of extensive and vast trade routes and alliances that formed interlocking countries of civilised societies. Prosperity and partnership flowed through the fertile lands and the countries were experiencing financial and personal security (Source). However, by the year 1200B.C. all aforementioned countries had collapsed, and the world was plunged into a dark age that lasted from the years c.
1100 – c. 800 BC. Ancient historians were left with the largest mystery encountered. What could have caused the collapse of multiple societies to such a large magnitude? The question was prompted in the 1900’s, during the time of the __ bronze age digs were occurring. The mystery still captures the fascination of historians today, as the proposal of an articulate, evidence-based explanation to these timeless questions guarantees fame in the current archaeological scene. (WHAT HAS THIS GOT TO DO WITH QUESTION YOU’RE ANSWERING? FAME IS NOT RELEVANT)It is most commonly accepted that the demise of the Bronze Age was caused by foreign invaders creating an opposing force within the countries named above.
Currently, the only evidence known is the names of their unidentified tribes “Denyen, Peleset, Shekelesh, Sherden, Teresh, Tjekker, Weshesh, Lukka, Peleset, Eqwesh” (SOURCE).Egyptian Kings were responsible for multiple sources that explain the invasion of the Sea People. Firstly, the carved Kadesh inscription, located in ____ by Ramesess II, details the battle between the Egyptians, Hittites and the Sea People tribes Arkisha, Lukka and Sherde. The second inscription titled ‘The Great Karnak Inscription’, located in the precinct of Amun-Re, details Metapheses’ campaign against various Sea People tribes such as Eqwesh, Lukka, Shekelesh, Sherden, Teresh.
Lastly, the most informative inscription regarding the demise of the Sea People was written by Ramesess III and is located in the Medinet Habu temple. It details the brutality, torture and widespread slaughter that occurred during the battle of Delta between the Egyptians and the Sea People. (HOW IS THIS INFO RELEVANT? YOU’RE NOT REALLY GIVING EXPLANATION, JUST STATING EVIDENCE. CHECK WITH TEACHER). ????? Whilst there are various inscriptions, historians are still baffled by the circumstances surrounding this disastrous battle and their explanations for the cause of battle are vast and differ dramatically. ?Robert Drews, a promote American historian disregards the common view and instead imposes a milertisitc view on the subject of the sea people.
Drews constantly contends that the underlying cause of the bronze age collapse was an outcome of an aggressive change in warfar tactictics caused by invading barbarian forces.. (The end of the bronze age, Pg _) He concluded, at the introduction of chapter 10 (Pg 105) that “Men in the barbarian lands awoke to a ruth that had been with them for sometimes; the chariot based warfarecould be overwhelmed by swaming infentries, the infrapy men being equpped with javelins, lng swords, and few essential defensive peices” He states that until the late 12th period (1200) towns and cities relied immoderately on chariots to defend them, and there was a lack of significance placed on average foot soldiers.
Battle tactics were so primitive, that the MedtInet habu inscription written after the battle of Delta (pg 43qq) suggest that the presence of foot soldiers was to aid only characters, and kill those that the chariots injured. This can be seen in the line inscriped “The charioty consisted of runners, of picked men, of every good and capable chariot warrior” The relief in the Med Hub temple aid us, showing individual warriors “running” beside the chariot, suggesting that no offical battle formation or ranking was in place, and that the footsoilders simply ran individually.There is substancial evidence implying, however, that this all changed around the 12th Century in the Bronze age, when foreign barbarous forces swamped the fertile coastlines of the mederterian and effectly oblivierated promont cities. Dramatic change in warfare can be seen by the neoteric inventions of weapons made for close range contact, which is a impromptu and unexpcted shift from the normal long ranged weapons generally being produced; Ie: Composite bows, during the bronze age period. Hunting spearswere more widely produced and used in battle, a conclusion we can draw from looking at battle-scene pottery found in regions inhabited by Tiryns and lefkand, placces which ___ Drews only lightly touches on the subject of the sea people, leaving them as mysterious “barbarians” for the main part of his book.
However, on Pg (220) he concluded that it was not one solitary race who was at the helm of the destruction, but a series of attacks by underprivileged substandard uncivilised communities. He has little reasoning for the reason, instead chalking it up to the nearest barbarian force, which can be incredibly unreliable from a geographic standpoint. For example; Dell Allar and Hazor was raided due to the Iserlietes.
Syria Emar was sacked by Aramaic-speaking hordes. Kaskans was the reason Hattusas fell. When mentioning the direct coastal cities like Ugarit and ___, which would have been harder for country barbarian forces to attack, he imperitivly raises the case that it was attacked by the primitive likes of Sicily, Sardinia, Ility and Aegean.
He states that uncivilised Sicilian and Sardinia civilians would have seen the lands of the mediteriannen through their coastal trade routes and that contact would have encouraged them to take action against the mederterian lands in hopes of aqquring their resources and land.Robert Drews presents a well formed solution for the end of the bronze age, however he lacks definition and evidance in regard to the origion. That lack weakons his arguments countabilityTrude And Moshe dothan have unparralleled experiance in regards to the bronze age. Both studied extnesivly at the Hebrew Universerty and have worked on numerous digs in regard to the mederteriannen bronze age world. In their book “People of the sea; The search for the philistines” They use their combined experiance in hope to answer the question of the Sea people. One race that has contantly been present thoughtout the early bronze age is the Philistines.
Tude and Moshe dothan call upoin the works of Masperoin on pg:27 to explain the origion of the sea people. They propose that the bible actually hints at the after effects of the battle of Delta. . To understand this, we must examine the inscription of the Medinet Habu temple. After the battle of Delta, the temple of Medi Habu detailes Ramsesses III actions in trying to prevent another attack against his kindgom by the sea people (and allies) It is inscribed “The sherden and the Weshesh of the sea were made non-existant, capturued alal together and brought in captivity to egyot like sands of the shore….I assiggned propostions for them all with clothing and provisions from the treasuries and granaries every year” This inscription suggest Ramsess III efforts to archive alliance with the captured sea people, and to bring them to fight by his side. This means that the “Weshesh and Sherden” would have been settled somewhere by Ramsess III, such as the coast.
This links up with the idea that the philistines sudden inhabitied the coastal plain of egypt during the 12-13th century was a result of being plaeced there by ramsess III after the battle of delta and they eventually expanded into a much larger force. The weshesh and sherden (now the philistines) would have clashed culturliary with the surronding ___, like the iserlites, which can be seen through the biblical source of the stories of Samson and david and Goliath in the Bible, which suggest a suddern disdain for the philistines, which was unlike?s the previous mention of them in Gensis and their positive interaction with Abraham..