In India coffee cultivation has 400 years of history.
A pilgrim of Moslem, Bababudan, is credited with secretly bringing back seven fresh coffee seeds from a pilgrimage to the holy land. He have planted these seeds in Chandradrona mountain cave in Chikkamagalur District, in the Mysore growing region, now considered the cradle of Indian coffee. This traditional coffee growing was converted as a commercial cultivation in 1840 from the British by establishing Arabica coffee plantations throughout the mountains of Southern India. They found the tropical climate, high altitude, sunny slopes, ample rainfall, soil rich in humus content, and well drained sub soil ideal for Arabica coffee cultivation (JOSUMA, 2012). Because of interest of British planters on coffee, large coffee estates were formed at Mysore region in 1826, Wynad and Shevoroys in 1930 and 1839 in Nilgiris of Tamilnadu (Pooja, 2017). At present Coffee is cultivated in an area of around 4.
07 lakh ha largely in the traditional areas covering the states of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, these states are contributes around 98 percent of the total production of the country and even coffee is also encouraged in nontraditional areas of Andrapradesh, Odisha and North East with main importance on tribal development and afforestation (Ministry of Commerce and Industry, 2012). Currently, there are over 52,000 coffee gardens giving employment to 2.5 million persons. Coffee cultivation in India concentrated in the hill stations of Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerala, among them Karnataka occupying 71 percentage of total production of Coffee followed by Kerala 21 percentage and 5 percent occupied by Tamilnadu (Coffee Board, 2017). Shade coffee cultivation is finest coffee rather than direct sunlight anywhere in the world (Kenneth, 2010).
The world coffee market occupies 3.6 percentage, Karnataka account for 70 percent of India’s total Coffee Production. Around 250000 growers are engaged in Coffee industry among them 98 percentage are small growers (Kouvelis & Neiderhoff, 2007). Nearly 1.5 Million families are directly engaged in coffee industry (Titus & Pereira, 2004). In southern India coffee was cultivated chronologically as follows in Nilgiris in 1838: the Hassan and Kadur (Chikkamgaluru) districts of Mysore in the 1840s; and Coorg in 1854 (Kooiman, 1989).