In this first part of this report, there will be adevelopment of sociological theories, and this report will show myunderstanding of how research can be used to understand a social issue. Achronological overview will be done starting from the history of social theory,using sources I have found to back up my discussion. And in the second part of this report I will covera topic area on domestic violence, describing and summarising a positivist andinterpretivist journal articles by Sanmani, Sheppard and Chapman, (2013) andThornton (2014), and discussing how research contributes to knowledge in thetopic area and how reading the topic area helped me in understanding theprocess better.During the 1700s the Enlightenment was a socialmovement that happened throughout the whole of England, Germany, France, and inother parts of the European Union.
It was emerged out by the scientificrevolution in early 1500 transforming every part of the world (Sparknotes.com,2018). In 1789 the French revolutionmarked the recognition of republican ideals.
These republican beliefs ofopportunity, freedom and native rights brought the old agrarian administrationand outright government to an end. The French revolution is frequently observedto some degree, the result of mid-eighteenth-century European enlightenmentthoughts which overtime opposed tradition and religious traditional bodies of authority,promoting philosophical and logical ideas of reason as the fundamental approachto advance in human affairs. (Giddens and Sutton, 2016). Auguste Comte (1798-1857), who introduced the world’sociology’ around 1840. Comte approach to positivist”was based on the principle of direct observation with theoretical statementsaimed at establishing causal, law-like generalizations” Giddens and Sutton (2016,p.
72). Positivism is a principle which says that science ought to beconcerned just with discernible elements that are known directly to experience (Giddens and Sutton, 2016).Thus, positivism formed a vital role in the Enlightenment tradition: scienceand affirmations restricted metaphysics and speculation; faith and revelationwere no longer acceptable as sources of knowledge (Swingewood, 2000). The ideas of Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) a Frenchsociologist, had more effect on sociology than those of Auguste Comte.
Durkheimconsidered sociology to be another science that changed customary philosophicalinvestigation into sociological ones which asked genuine research studies.Durkheim argued that we should study social life with an indistinct objectivityas experts study the natural world (Giddens and Sutton, 2016). Functionalism asa distinct technique and concept of society originated first within the work ofComte, Spencer, and Durkheim (Swingewood,2000). Functionalism a sociological approach would be described by relating thesociety to the human body, and for us to know the importance of these organs inthe human body we need to know the functions each of them carries and how theywork together in supplying the basic needs of human life (Browne, 2008). Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) was the founderof modern structuralism (Swingewood, 2000), Structuralism puts forward adifferent view of the role of a person in the society, this theory focuses onhow a person behaves in the society, his or her values and attitudes arecontrolled by the government and the environment in which they live in, andmostly the social groups to which they belong to in their society (Larkin,2011). George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) owes so much tosymbolic interactionism (Giddens and Sutton, 2016), this theory is interested inthe way people behave and interact socially.
For example, teenagers and a groupof friends have different ways of interacting with one another, they sometimesmake use of body languages, gestures to communicate with one another this tosome extent may form part of the norm to the society in a subjective manner(Larkin, 2011). Phenomenology, on theother hand, has been one of the key intellectual traditions that have beenaccountable for the anti-positivist position. It is essentially what anindividual is perceiving right and what a person is experiencing regardless ofwhat on the outside (Bryman, 2016). Critical theory occurred during the Marxisttradition, and it was established by a set of theorists at the University ofFrankfurt in Germany who called themselves The Frankfurt School. “Criticaltheory effectively separated itself from fundamental concepts of Marxism suchas class struggle and the leading role of the working class in social change” Swingewood(2000, p.132).
There are contemporary manifestations of critical theory whichinclude: Feminist theories, critical race theory, gender and queer theory andmedia theory and media studies (Palmer, 2017). SUMMARYOF RESEARCH STUDIES ON DOMESTIC VIOLENCE POSITIVIST Domestic violence has an enormous prevalence in the UnitedKingdom, with one out of four women and one out of six men encounteringdomestic violence throughout their lifetime. One incident of domestic violenceis reported to the police each minute and two women are killed each week bytheir present partner or ex-partner. Domestic violence has remained the main cause of morbidityfor women between the ages of 19-44years and has a relationship with sexualmedical issues. The negative effect domestic violence has on women’s health hasbeen recognised by researchers which are an unwanted pregnancy, sexuallytransmitted diseases, and mental health problems.
The aim of this research study carried out was to identifydomestic violence from 12 months and the entire lifetime of both male andfemale and to find out the association between age, employment status, gender, occupation,marital status, misuse of alcohol and drugs. In July 2009, an anonymous self-questionnaire was given outto patients attending Bournemouth genitourinary medicine clinic to discoverassociations between lifetime domestic violence and sociodemographic, sexualand behavioural factors. Overall, the percentage of this study shows that 21percent pronounced that they have been battered by their partner 12 percent ofmen and 29 percent of women. Research shows that women are more likely to report lifetimedomestic violence than men because men find it difficult to report domesticviolence to their local authorities.
It also shows that married men and womenwere less likely to report domestic violence than those who are single, whichmeans that marital status was non-significant. In a nutshell what this study found out was that usinglogistic regression that being a female and having children, misuse of drugswere essential factors linked to lifetime domestic violence (Sanmani, Sheppard and Chapman, 2013). INTERPRETIVIST Whilst domestic violence is all over the place in the UnitedKingdom, it occurs mostly in varieties of personal and hereditary relationshipsirrespective of their cultural backgrounds, social, and educational groups.Young children who are living with domestic violence and who have experienceddomestic violence have low communication skills and find it hard to expresstheir feelings towards others than those from non-violent homes. In the early 1980s, some researchers began to questiondomestic violence using quantitative methodologies asking mothers to attemptsome questionnaire about violence that transpired in their various homes andwhat indicators have they observed in each of their children. Children livingwith domestic violence have described feeling lonely and neglected orstruggling to share how they feel due to restrictions on their peer groups orthrough doubts of not been believed by professionals. These children needassistance to be able to share their experiences and feelings which have been saidto be helplessness, frustration, guilt, and fear.All participants that took part in this study were whiteBritish mothers between the ages of 24 and 42 years old, their relationshipwith their violent partners ended between two years and six months prior to thestudy, they were recruited through voluntary sector agencies working withsurvivors of domestic violence, with the help of some support workers provided,they gave some written information about what the study is all about to themothers of the children and the mothers will have to discuss the study withtheir child.
The study aimed to sincerely pay attention to youngchildren’s perspectives on their experience and deal with them as activeparticipants in the research process, though this research was done within asmall sample size groups, it neglects other variables, its findings make aninteresting contribution to understanding the emotional impact of domesticviolence on younger children. It is paramount for clinical and educationalprofessionals to be aware of important indicators expressed by young childrenthrough presentations (drawings) and behaviour Thornton(2014). DISCUSSIONResearch has shown that domesticviolence is common in the United Kingdom. According to the World Health Organisationdomestic violence happens all over the world. A study was carried out by the CommonwealthFund they assessed that just about four million women are physically mishandledevery year in the United States, while a 1995 survey carried out by the BeijingMarriage and Family Affairs Research Institute found out that 23 percent ofhusbands confessed to beating their wives. (Giddens and Sutton, 2016).
The qualitative study I looked at wasto understand the emotional impact of domestic violence on young children byhearing directly from them about their experience within their families. Butthe other study looked at, how a person socioeconomic factors, sexualbehaviours, misuse of drugs and alcohol are associated with lifetime domesticviolence. The quantitative study showed thescale and prevalence of domestic violence for example, one out of four men andone out of six men experience domestic violence during their lifetime, whilethe other study showed that 25 percent to 30 percent of women going through domesticviolence over their lifetime with a typical beginning at the season ofpregnancy, birth, or when their children are small.The participants that took part inthe qualitative study were survivors of domestic violence who were recruitedvia voluntary sector agencies, where eight children from five families tookpart in the study and their mothers were interviewed to confirm if theirchildren had witnessed physical and verbal aggression directed at their mother,either from inside a similar room or caught from another room in the house.
Butthe other study was done in a hospital located within the District GeneralHospital that offers both Sexual Health and HIV services, it was done onpatients in Bournemouth genitourinary medicine clinic to see how occupation,age, gender, environment, drugs, and alcohol, to see how these factors areassociated with domestic violence using Predictive Analytics Software. Whilethe qualitative used projective play and drawings can be used on the youngchildren who have experienced domestic violence because they find the hard toexpress themselves and make their voices and need to be heard.What I found good in the qualitativestudy is that ethical considerations were taken place in both studies which Ilooked at, the qualitative study ensured that the children are protected frompotential harm, their mothers and children were given right to opt-out from thestudy at any time and the children packs that were given to them used the rightlanguage for their age and photographs of to explain why they are participatingin the study, confidentiality was made clear and also consent was checked againby the researcher at the beginning of each child’s session, but consent fromtheir mothers did not assume consent from their child.But the other study there was a spaceon the questionnaire to decline if they would like to take part or not which 2percent of women and 8 percent of men declined to complete the questionnaire,this was the only ethical consideration I could find in this study which was abit worrying for me.
To what I have found out from othersources, all research studies with human participants or their personalinformation raise ethical issues that researchers must deal it (Jacobsen, 2012).The issue of confidentiality raises problems for many styles of qualitativeresearch studies, while in quantitative research studies it is easy to makerecords anonymous and to report findings in a manner that does not permitindividuals to be recognised (Bryman, 2016). ConclusionFinally, this report has demonstrated anunderstanding of how a qualitative and a quantitative research study can be usedto understand a social issue