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In this century, 13 million hectares of forest have been transformed for other purposes or destroyed by natural factors. Deforestation caused up to 28000 species can go extinct in the next century. According to World Wide Fund (WWF), 46-58 thousand square miles of forest are lost per year which equivalent to 48 football fields per minute. Forest cover is diminishing due to several reasons. For example, human activities like infrastructure development. According to Cambridge Dictionary, forest is defined as a large area of land covered with trees and plants. Deforestation is the transformation of non-forest land from forested areas for use namely logged areas, pasture, arable land, urban use or wasteland. Forest are important for living things. We need forest for survival, from the air we breathe to the wood we use. Forests also offer mitigate climate change, watershed protection and prevent soil erosion besides providing habitats for animals and livelihoods for humans. Yet, despite our dependence on forest, we are still allowing them to disappear. Local community plays a vital role in conserving forest. This is because locals are the one who live surrounded by the forest. Local community is a group of individuals that interact within their immediate surroundings. In order to conserve the forest, conservationist face problems with locals. This is because the best people to conserve forest is the locals; however, locals’ practices not environmentally friendly. In order to conserve forest with locals, the practices need to have some changes. Changes in way of life is met with hostility unless locals are compensated. Hence, many government introduces ecotourism to allocate locals so that they are not depending on the forest; however, this produce partial success (Teh and Nik, 2015). Malaysia government encourage many ecotourism areas to improve the income of locals and created employment opportunities for the locals (Teh & Nik, 2015). For instance, WWF Malaysia estimates that Malaysia gains RM655 million per year from ecotourism. As the consequence of this effort, most of the Malays respondent at Taman Negara Pahang shows support towards ecotourism and gave fully cooperation to conservationist (Teh & Nik, 2015). Furthermore, Amazon government introduced ecotourism by changing locals’ attitudes and behaviour towards the effort in conserving the forest (Wunder, 1999). For example, Amazon government creating ‘untouchable’ zones and reducing overexploitation of forest (Wunder, 1999). As the result, locals’ attitude had changed by spending more time in tourism investment. Thus, they are less chances for hunting and other activities that are not practically sustainability. In addition, from the perspective of socio-cultural, ecotourism brings several positive effects toward locals’ community (Teh & Nik, 2015). First of all, ecotourism causes the presence of recreation facilities and transport facilities nearby the forest (Teh & Nik, 2015). The government continued to expand and upgrade facilities and communication equipment which supported the growth of the ecotourism. For instance, air, surface, and sea transportation infrastructure and facilities have been improved to promote the development of ecotourism industry. Besides that, the English Language of locals was enhanced due to ecotourism development (Teh & Nik, 2015). The locals’ English language level has to been improved in order to communicate with the tourists from other countries. It is very important for the locals to improve their English level to understand the tourists needs. This is because English is an international language in most of the country. Moreover, ecotourism also encouraged cultural alertness among the locals’ community (Teh & Nik, 2015). Sustainable tourism has the potential to enhance the preservative and transmission of cultural and historical traditions. Ecotourism contributing to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources can bring usually the chance to protect local heritage or to revitalize native cultures, for instance by re-establish cultural arts and crafts. On the other hand, Batek respondent in Taman Negara Pahang, Kuala Tahan Malaysia dissatisfied with the effort of introduce ecotourism due to several reasons (Teh & Nik, 2015). Firstly, environmental issues caused by the ecotourism has the effects on the livelihood of Batek (Teh & Nik, 2015). For example, environmental destruction for activity of logging and developing infrastructure (Teh & Nik, 2015). As the result of the number of tourists increases, the number of vehicles will be increased simultaneously. This will result air quality to be decreased causes the air more pollutants. Therefore, daily lifestyle of Batek will be affected due to the air polluted. Furthermore, Batek tends to maintain their rich cultures and traditions to live in the forest (Teh & Nik, 2015). This is because the special relationship with the rainforest has been well-protected from elders to their descendants (Teh & Nik, 2015). Until now, Batek retained much of their identity and they are still traditionally following the behaviours of their ancestors. For instance, Batek still searching for food in the forest, go for hunting and collecting pine, rattan, scented wood and resin for their daily life (Teh & Nik, 2015). The existence of rules and regulations that are not biased to Batek caused them to dissatisfy with the ecotourism implementation (Teh & Nik, 2015). This happened because Batek were only allowed for livelihood hunting and collecting forest products from the national park. At the same time, they were not allowed to do commercial hunting and sell all those park resources to earn own profit (Teh & Nik, 2015). Therefore, development of the ecotourism did not benefit towards Batek because non-environmentally friendly of ecotourism, retain of cultures and traditions of Batek as well as the existence of rules and regulations that are not biased to them. Government implement forest laws to reduce locals’ dependence on forest; however, forest laws are full of ambiguities (Jusoff and Majid, 1995 and Horowitz, 1998 and Aziz, Clements, Rayan and Sankar, 2013). Current laws have weakness affected locals’ likelihood as well as their surrounding biodiversity. State government establishes buffer zones or forest ‘gates’ where efforts are made to meet human needs with those of biodiversity conservation (Jusoff & Majid, 1995). The reason of this effort is due to buffer zones are essential areas for both people and nature. Therefore, well developed planning based on complete information of the natural resource base and socio-economic context is required. In conjunction with that, forest resources will be managed sustainability and used for the benefit of whole communities, generating jobs and income (Jusoff & Majid, 1995). At the same time, this effort was bringing new and improved social as well as health facilities to the countryside areas (Jusoff & Majid, 1995). Thus, biodiversity and forest can be conserved in the effort of creating buffer zones. In addition, government work within the existing system of customary law to establish on traditional law infrastructure and management practices (Horowitz, 1998). As the result, government established native customary rights (NCRs) over certain areas of land that had been used by indigenous people (Horowitz, 1998). NCRs allows locals to farm in only these specified areas, known as native customary land (NCL) (Horowitz, 1998). Any further clearing for planting would require a permit as uncleared land was now claimed by the state (Horowitz, 1998). Thus, some of the forest is conserved and preserved in order to prevent to be used as farming by indigenous people. However, ambiguities existed as some of current forest laws are unclear and not benefited to the locals (Aziz et al., 2013). First of all, current forest laws affect the biodiversity and livelihoods of locals (Aziz et al., 2013). This is because legislation is not easy to be enforced and much forest has been illegally cut down for farming. This causing forest destruction in its own right, law has had negative repercussions on the daily life of indigenous people. Besides that, presence meaning of NCL is exceedingly vague and controversial as well as the status of local people’s legal rights and control over this land is not clearly stated (Aziz et al., 2013). Forest lands have been reclaimed by the state for such purposes as land settlement schemes, roads, dams or logging concessions. This affect NCL decreases and affect livelihood of locals. Some areas of NCL is overlapped with the logging concessions and logging companies frequently ignore communities’ rights even when legally valid (Aziz et al., 2013). This scenario happened because of the administrative mechanisms for securing and enforcing NCRs are intensely powerless (Aziz et al., 2013). This will cause the conflict between indigenous people and timber companies. Government made effort to dissuade locals from not depending on the forest. Unfortunately, their effort does not bring holistic effect.  Government introduced ecotourism to allocate locals and implement forest laws to reduce locals’ dependence on forest. However, Batek are dissatisfied with government effort such as ecotourism due to several factors. In addition, there are ambiguities existed with the forest law.  We are now seeing part of the locals were not satisfied the efforts that was done by the conservationist. This is because the efforts did by the conservationist does not consider comprehensively to meet the locals’ needs. More researchers and studies need to be done in the future to ensure the locals are giving fully support in conserving forest. As the result, the biodiversity of the forest can be conserved and preserved as well as the heritage for the future generation. In a nutshell, conservationist need to think holistically in the effort to conserve forest in order to meet the locals’ needs. 

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