Impactof Modern Information Technology on Human LifeIt is a technology thatcombines computing with high speed communication links using computers,storage, networking and other physical devices, infrastructures and processesto create, process, store, secure and exchange data in any electronic form.That means data can be carried in the form of text, sound, images, video etc.from one place to another all over the world (global village). Informationtechnology can be abbreviated as IT.The term information technology was first coined by Harvard Business Review.
IT industry has evolved from the mid-20thcentury and now it is one of most important fields or technologies.The interconnection ofcomputers enables people to send and receive any type of information. Computersof the world can be interconnected with one another through a large network ofnetworks i.e., Internet. Due to invention of internet the Globe is referred as “Global Village” as it is an ocean ofknowledge. In 1960, ARPANET was designed by US-Defense department in alliancewith research institutes and universities.
ARPANET (Advance Research Project AgencyNetwork) was a network connecting a small number of users i.e., there were onlyfour hosts. In the beginning, it was used for military purpose. Then in 1989,NSF (National Science Foundation) established a network by connecting five hosts(five supercomputing centres that are available to researchers for academicpurposes. This NSF network was named as NSFnet. In 1995, internet becameavailable for public.
WWW, E-mail, telnet, File-Transfer Facility, Gopher, Chatgroups, Intranet, Extranet are the practices of Internet. Internet is also usedas a source of information technology. Data that is carriedthrough information technology can be converted into digital form throughdigital convergence. The digital convergence is the technological blend of severalindustries through some electronic devices that exchange information betweenthem.Talking about modernscenario of information technology, modern scenario means the modern situationof the information technology. The base of information technology is computing and high-speed communication. High speed communication can be achievedthrough satellite, fibre optic, mobile phones, fax-machines, E-commerce,M-commerce etc.
IT brought a revolutionin human life and it is called computer revolution, information revolution,multi-media revolution, communication revolution or internet revolution. Now adays, computer revolution is going on, flooring the way for a new informationphase. Personal computers and laptops are being extensively used in homes,offices and other working places for various purposes. The foremostapplications of computers are AI(Artificial Intelligence), web basedapplications, E-commerce, M-commerce, computer animation, multi-mediaand hypermedia, distributed applications. Artificial intelligenceis used to develop machines having human like abilities such as learning,hearing and seeing etc. These machines can be digital computers or computer-controlledrobots. Since the invention of digital computer, it has been determined that itcan perform various complex tasks with great efficiency.
Despite much advancesin computer processing speed and memory capacity, still computers cannotreplace humans completely over broader arenas or in tasks that require everydayknowledge. In contrast, some programmes have accomplished the performance levelof humans in doing certain specific tasks so in this restricted sense, AI hasfound its applications as diverse as computer search engines, medical diagnosisand voice or handwriting recognition etc. Human intellect can not be characterized by a single attribute rather itis categorized by combining many diverse aptitudes. Research in AI has focusedprimarily on the following components of the intelligence: learning, reasoning,perception, problem resolving and using language. Several different forms of learning can be applied toartificial intelligence. To reason is to draw interpretations appropriate to any situation. Solving a problem,predominantly in artificial intelligence (AI), may be considered as asystematic exploration through an array of possible activities to reach somepredefined goal or solution.
Basically, perception means to simply observe thesituation. A language is a scheme of signs that have some meaningby convention. In this way, language needs not be limited to the spoken words.It is comparatively easy to write computer programs that seem able to respond effortlessly in a human language to the queriesand declarations.
Although none of these programs certainly understands language,they may reach the point where their command of a language is indistinguishablefrom that of a normal human. Web based applications is type of software applications that isavailable on the Web. The user can use it by connecting to the Internet fromany computer using a standard browser. For example, if there is an applicationinstalled in a computer i.e., Microsoft Word (word processing software commonlyused), it is not a web based application as every time it can be used withoutaccessing it through Internet.
Onthe other hand, Google Docs is another word-processing application but operators perform allthe functions using a web browser as an alternative of using software installedon their computer. This means that it is an example of web-based application.Web based applications are accessible anywhere, easily customisable, availablefor a variety of devices, easier to install and maintain, pliable to increased workloadand secured to much extent. These applications provide humans with numerousadvantages as in business or any other field, consequently making life easier.E-commerce (electronic commerce) is a process of performing businessover the Internet.It has grown up immensely in the previous decade, making life moreconvenient for consumers. E-commerce have provided many new opportunities fordoing business and banking,insurance, advertising and warehousing.
Even transference transactions werealso completed using e-commerce. All cannot contend with hugetrades like Amazon or eBay, but anyone anywhere in the world can open its ownbusiness or trade online through Internet by establishing online stores withina matter of minutes. Many other small local stores have found a new way ofdoing business by trading online and selling their products to the customers.M-commerce is a processof buying goods and services using mobile phone. M-commerce, as the nameindicates, is mobile commerce. The cumulative usage of mobile phones andtelecommunication devices represented as another precursor to change, and thischange gave rise to mobile commerce. It is the newer concept of e-commerce as ituses mobile devices for example; smartphones, PDAs, tablets and it dependsmainly on an Internet connection provided by wireless telecommunicationnetworks.
An additional Internet connection or Internet device is required inecommerce as it chiefly involves the use of computers while m-commerce does nothave the same case because these devices come with their own connection to theInternet using different networks. As mobile devices are smaller and easilyportable, users can very easily conduct commercial activities anywhere at anyplace even there where is no electricity. Its usage is becoming more and morepopular since users are given more options and almost no limitations. The most common goods and facilities on mobile commerce are mobilebanking, mobile browsing and purchase, mobile’s content purchase and delivery,mobile ATM (Automated Teller Machine), money transfers through mobile,information and location based services, advertising etc. All these features ofM-commerce provide numerous advantages that is making Human life easier day byday but it is not perfect.
It is then up to users of m-commerce to deal withthe issues accordingly. Mobile users have some security and privacy issues usingthis technology as they do not have much trust whether they are protected orthe contents that they are downloading is completely safe to use or not. Userare protective especially when it comes to sharing personal things orinformation and payment details. Users must make sure that they have a websitefriendly with mobile.
There are businesses that think if their websites areviewable on the small screens of mobile devices, that is enough.Computer animation is another application that is vastly making progressin the field of modern information technology. It is a process to create movingimages using computer. Computer animation technology is being used mostly bypeople who are concerned with media or entertainment industry.
Initially,animations were started as 2D (on paper) but when industry progressed,computers were introduced and animations automatically became 3D. Computeranimations are being used in different industries which are not linked orconcerned with media or entertainment sector. For example, medical animations, architecturalvisualizations, mechanical animations, forensic animations and educationalanimations.Multimedia is a collection of graphics, animations audio and videopresented by computer.
These are available to public as any computer can beconnected to another through Internet and that’s what the informationtechnology basically is. Hypermedia is a process of creating links to filesthat contain photographs, audio, video and text etc. and this can be achievedby following the basic principle of information technology. This enables peopleto get connected on a common platform i.
e., Internet. Distributed computing is a process of running single task on multiplecomputers and modern information technology makes it possible in an effectiveway.
Concludingfrom the aspects stated above, information technologyhas allowed people to complete more tasks in less time and with lessenergy. Technology has had profound effects on human lifestyle throughouthuman history. As the rate of progress increases, society have dealt with boththe good and bad implications.