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IEEE 802 is a family of IEEE standards dealing with local area networkand metropolitan area network.The services and protocols specified in IEE 802 map to thelower two layers (data link layer and physical layer) of the OSI networkingreference model.IEEE 802.

1   BridgingLAN/MAN bridging and management. It covers management andthe lower sub-layers of OSI Layer 2, including MAC-basedbridging (Media Access Control), virtual LANs and port-based accesscontrol.IEEE 802.2   Logical Link ControlThe technical definition for 802.

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2 is”the standard for the upper Data Link Layer sublayer also known as theLogical Link Control layer. It is used with the 802.3, 802.4, and 802.5standards (lower DL sublayers).”802.

2 is concerned with managing trafficover the physical network. It is responsible for flow and error control. TheLLC acts like a software bus allowing multiple higher layer protocols to accessone or more lower layer networks. For example, if you have a server withmultiple network interface cards, the LLC will forward packers from those upperlayer protocols to the appropriate network interface. This allows the upperlayer protocols to not need specific knowledge of the lower layer networks inuse.  IEEE 802.

3   EthernetStandard which Ethernet operates by. It isthe standard for CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with CollisionDetection). This standard encompasses both the MAC and Physical Layerstandards.

Commonly, Ethernet networks transmit datain packets, or small bits of information. A packet can be a minimum size of 72bytes or maximum of 1518 bytes.The most common topology for Ethernet is thestar topology.IEEE 802.

4   Token BusToken bus is a network implementing the tokenring protocol over a “virtualring” on a coaxial cable.  Itis mainly used for industrial applications. Due to difficulties handling devicefailures and adding new stations to a network, token ring gained a reputationfor being unreliable and difficult to upgrade. The IEEE 802.4 Working Group isdisbanded and the standard has been withdrawn by the IEEE.

IEEE 802.5   Token RingToken Ring was developed primarily by IBM.Token ring is designed to use the ring topology and utilizes a token to controlthe transmission of data on the network.Theoriginal token-passing standard for twisted-pair, shielded copper cables.Supports copper and fiber cabling from 4 Mbps to 100 Mbps. Often called”IBM Token-Ring.” Thetoken is a special frame which is designed to travel from node to node aroundthe ring. When it does not have any data attached to it, a node on the networkcan modify the frame, attach its data and transmit.

Each node on the networkchecks the token as it passes to see if the data is intended for that node, ifit is; it accepts the data and transmits a new token. If it is not intended forthat node, it retransmits the token on to the next node. Thetoken ring network is designed in such a way that each node on the network isguaranteed access to the token at some point. This equalizes the data transferon the network. This is different from an Ethernet network where eachworkstation has equal access to grab the available bandwidth, with the possibleof a node using more bandwidth than other nodes.

Tokenring can be run over a star topology as well as the ring topology. Initially,token ring operated at a speed of about 4 Mbps and 16 Mbps. 802.5t allows for100 Mbps speeds and 802.5v provides for 1 Gbps over fibber. IEEE802.6   Distributed queue dual bus Standard governed by the ANSI for Metropolitan area network (MAN). It is an improvement of an older standard(also created by ANSI) which used the fibre distributed datainterface (FDDI) network structure.

TheFDDI-based standard failed due to its expensive implementation and lack ofcompatibility with current LAN standards. Thisstandard has also failed, mostly for the same reasons that the FDDI standardfailed.IEEE802.7   Broadband LAN PracticesCovers broadband local area networks.The working group did issuea recommendation in 1989, but is currently inactive and in hibernation.IEEE802.

8   Fibre Optic PracticesThe Fibre Optic Technical Advisory Group was to create a LAN standard for fibre optic media used in token passing computernetworks like FDDI. This was part of the IEEE 802 group of standards.  IEEE802.9   Integrated services LANDeveloped standards for integrated voiceand data access over existing Category 3 twisted-pair network cableinstallations. Its major standard was usually known as isoEthernet.There was some vendor support forisoEthernet, but it lost in the marketplace due to the rapid adoption of FastEthernet and the working group was disbanded.IEEE802.

10   Interoperable LAN securityA former standard for security functions that could be used in both LAN and MAN.802.10 specifies security associationmanagement and key management, as well as accesscontrol, data confidentiality and data integrity.

IEEE802.11 Wireless Network standards802.11 is the collection of standards setupfor wireless networking. This standard is divided into several standards, eachstandard uses a frequency to connect to the network and has a defined upperlimit for data transfer speeds.802.11a was one of the first wirelessstandards operates in the 5Ghz radio band and can achieve a maximum of 54Mbps.

802.11b operates in the 2.4Ghz band and supports up to 11Mbps. 802.

11g is astandard in the 2.4Ghz band operating at 54Mbps. 802.

11a is not directlycompatible with 802.11b or 802.11g since it operates in a different band.Wireless standards operate within awireless topology.IEEE802.12   Demand PriorityIncreases Ethernet data rate to 100Mbps by controllingmedia utilization.IEEE802.

13 Unused, reserved for fast ethernetdevelopment.IEEE802.14   Cable ModemsA cable modem is a type of network bridge that provides bi-directional data communicationvia radio frequency channels ona hybrid fibre-coaxial (HFC)and radio frequency over glass (RFoG)infrastructure. Cable modems are primarily used to deliver broadbandinternet access in the form of cableinternet taking advantage of the high bandwidthof a HFC and RFoG network.

IEEE802.15   Wireless PersonalArea NetworksSpecifies Wireless Personal Area Networks. Thereare 10 major areas of development, not all of which are active. ·     802.15.1 Bluetooth Shortrange (10m) wireless technology for cordless mouse, keyboard, andhands-free headset at 2.4 GHz.·     802.15.3a  UWB Short range, high-bandwidth “ultra-wideband” link·     802.15.4 ZigBee Short rangewireless sensor networks ·     802.15.5  Mesh Networks Extension of network coverage without increasing thetransmit power or the receiver sensitivityIEEE 802.16   Wireless Metropolitan Area NetworksThis family of standards covers Fixed and Mobile BroadbandWireless Access methods used to create Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks(WMANs.) Connects Base Stations to the Internet using OFDM in unlicensed (900MHz, 2.4, 5.8 GHz) or licensed (700 MHz, 2.5 – 3.6 GHz) frequency bands.Products that implement 802.16 standards can undergo WiMAX certificationtesting.IEEE 802.17   Resilient Packet RingA protocol standard designed for theoptimized transport of data traffic over optical fibre ring networks.It is designed to provide the resilience found in SONET/SDH networks (50 ms protection) but, instead ofsetting up circuit oriented connections, provides a packet based transmission,in order to increase the efficiency of Ethernet and IP services.

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