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Slavery & subordination The roman concept of “Colonial” The colonial Rationale The “Other” as uncivilized Colonial power as superior Subaltern consciousness/ culture is misguided/inferior Colonial power as a civilizing force subaltern: the “OTHER” Colonial and imperial rule was legitimated by anthropological theories which increasingly portrayed the peoples of the colonized world as inferior, feminine, childlike, incapable of looking after themselves (despite having done so perfectly well or millennia) and requiring the paternal rule for their own best interests (today they are deemed to require ‘development’). – Robert C. J.

Young THE Colonial Struggle 1 . The elite exposed to Western education 2. The elite informed of the colonial condition (inequality, abuse, manipulation) 3. The transference of the colonial consciousness to the masses 4. The masses revolt against colonizer 5. Move towards self-determination Dependency theory “Neocolonialism” “First World” nations developed at the expense of the “Third World” Being economically dependent on the former colonizer The Western model Legitimate government Law Economics Science Language Music Art Literature Fixation with the messiest Colonial mentality What was that clickГ©?

Three centuries in a monastery and fifty years in Hollywood. But what about ten thousand years in Asia? – James Hamilton Paterson, Ghosts of Manila Postcolonial theory Involves ten argument Tanat ten matrons AT ten tenure non-western continents A Africa, Latin America) are largely in a position of subordination to Europe and North

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America, and in a position of economic inequality Names a politics and philosophy of activism that contests that disparity, and so continues in a new way the anti-colonial struggle of the past Transcontinental First World – Capitalist Second World – Socialist Third World – the so-called “non-aligned nations” (newly independent, former colonies of imperial powers) Banding Conference (1955) – countries in Asia and Africa Transcontinental Conference (Cuba, 1956) – Asia, Africa & Latin America Comparison to feminism The world confined to male perspective

Women as the object, never the subject Assumption that women were less intelligent Knowledge produced by women were trivial/gossip “All these attitudes were part of a larger system in which women were dominated, exploited and physically abused by men. ” -Robert C. J. Young Knowledge Informal vs… Formal Knowledge Prominence / Emphasis of Greek & Latin as sources of knowledge Negligence of oriental sources Homo K. Bah – Hybridism Edward Said – Orientation Customary law Fixed rules created by colonial governments

Where flexibility and local variation formerly existed Creates confusion (example: Inure of Sudan) colonial adaptation Colonialism creates hybridism Mocking Western culture by imitation In the Philippines: Digitalis, spoon & fork (case of Luck Caged) Example elsewhere: eradication of tribal warfare in the Trinidad Islands (and using magic in cricket matches) Return to the source The colonialists usually say that it was they who brought us into history: today we show this is not so.

They made us leave history, our history, to follow them, right at he back, to follow the progress of their history. – Mailman Cabal, Return to the Source Finding the Filipino identity NATIVES The concept of the pure “Filipino’ The concept of hybridism Simultaneity The swank chronicles Dianna L. Eugenia, Philippine Folk Literature: The Myths Auguring: Benevolent deity Swank: Stealer of fire; brother of Auguring The Swank chronicles Alicia Mangos (anthropologist): “description [of the swank] became more morbid and cruel as generations passed these fabricated stories. ”

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