Why Study Argument? We read and listen for rhetorical benefit To voice our opinions Gather facts when we research Gathering perspective from all sides opening points of views Trying to overcome bias, and to understand it Have to build common ground Need various perspectives first evidence 3.
Hear/read multiple positions/perspectives 4. Build a common ground We use argument/persuasion in our daily life EXPO: at store, with family/friends, work to get resources or raises etc. Within academic studies you will use persuasion techniques all the time Opinion: personal 0 inherited beliefs, attitudes and values Vs…Argument: evocativeness, inherited one or the other, pick one side, black and white, NO grey scale Ways to think about Argument Opinion verses argument: what you think about a subject (attitudes and inherited beliefs) VS.. Reasoning and careful examination of evidence Continuum or multiple perspectives VS.
. “us and them” model Creating Academic Argument Evidence gathering, research Your purpose, audience context Claims of fact assert that a condition exits has existed of will exist and their support consist of factual info 0 such as statistics, example, and testimony that most expansible observers assume can be verified EXPO: The Vancouver Snuck will win the Stanley cup: NOT a claim of fact The sun will rise and set: a claim of fact To support claim of fact writer needs produce sufficient and appropriate data 1 . Sufficient and appropriate data, want data that is accurate, reliable relevant and representative 2.Who are the reliable authorities? What are the reliable sources or facts? 3. Have I made a clear whether my statement are facts/influences? Want Klan AT appeal (Montreal, tentacle, logical) wall Test support an argumentative essay based on the claim of fact Claims of Value Make a Judgment express approval/disapproval attempt to prove some action/ dedication is right or wrong, good or bad Try to make clear the values and principles you are defending To establish a claim of value effectively think of the following 1 . Try to make clear that the value and principles you are defending are proportion and relatively more significant than other values 2. Suggest that adherence to the values you are defending will bring about good results in some specific situation or negative results if respect for the value is ignored 3. Since values are abstract use examples and illustrations to clarify meanings and make distinctions comparisons and contrasts are especially helpful