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a) Describe and discuss the structure of organized public health in the United States. Public health activities are performed at many levels from local to national to global. The organizations and agencies devoted to public health at these different levels share many of the same functions including dis- ease surveillance, policy development, and provision of access to health care. Local health departments are the point of contact with the individual residents, and care and data collection occur primarily at that level. State departments of health provide sup- port to local department as well as a conduit for information to federal agencies.

At the national level, policy, guidance, funding, and interaction with international partners become the primary activities. Globally, the public health system is a voluntary network of countries and private organizations that work to facilitate the flow of information and expertise to parts of the world where it is most needed. These systems are interdepen- dent, and pharmacists have the potential to be involved at any level of the public health system. b) Discuss the role of the private sector in health promotion and disease prevention in the United States.

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There are many public sector and not for profit health agencies within the United States health care system. There are health care agencies that are run by the government, Quasi-government and voluntary. The agencies that are Quasi-government are supported by the government but managed privately and there are voluntary health agencies that can be run by private or non-profit agencies, and there are also government run agencies. Government agencies are run by the government and funded through taxes or other government budget appropriations.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is example of a government run agency. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is one of the most important health agencies in the world. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is a federal government run agency that relies on stakeholders and partners to offer important insight in planning and evaluating, and contributions in helping Americans c) Summarize the future of public health in the United States. The health challenges that the United States will face in the coming decades.

The systems and entities that protect and promote the public’s health, already challenged by problems like obesity, toxic environments, a large uninsured population, and health disparities, must also confront emerging threats, such as antimicrobial resistance and bioterrorism. The social, cultural, and global contexts of the nation’s health are also undergoing rapid and dramatic change. Scientific and technological advances, such as genomics and informatics, extend the limits of knowledge and human potential more rapidly than their implications can be absorbed and acted upon.

d) Describe the most prominent settings for ambulatory practice in the United States. Ambulatory care covers a wide range of health care services that are providedfor patients who are not admitted overnight to a hospital. These services are performed at outpatient clinics, urgent care centers, emergency rooms, ambulatory or same-day surgery centers, diagnostic and imaging centers, primary care centers, community health centers, occupational health centers, mental health clinics, and group practices. e) What managerial attributes enhance ambulatory care organizations?

Cost is the primary factor driving the expansion of ambulatory health care services. It is estimated that a procedure performed in an outpatient surgery center costs 30-60% less than the identical surgery performed in an inpatienthospital setting. Convenience is another factor in the rise of ambulatory care. Many patients find it more convenient and less stressful to recover at home rather than in a hospital. Advances in microsurgery have made it safe for many procedures that once required a hospital stay to be done as day surgery. f) Describe the challenges ambulatory care will encounter in the future and its role in the U.

S. health care system. All ambulatory care facilities that receive Medicare reimbursement are regulated and inspected by the federal government. Williams, S. J. , & Torrens, P. R. (2010). Introduction to Health Services. Mason: Cengage Learning. Futterman, L. , & Lemberg, L. (2007, November). Inequalities in the healthcare system: A problem, worldwide. American Journal of Citical care, 16(6), 617- 620. DeNavas-Walt, C. B. Proctor, and J. Smith. (2008) Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2007. U. S. Cencus Bureau. August

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