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The Human Rights Act 1998 which incorporates the European Convention on Human Rights came into force in England and Wales in 2000. It allows everyone the right to a fair trial, and to seek protection of their rights worldwide through the European Court of Humans rights in Strasbourg. Personal information and privacy are protected by the DATA Protection Act 1998.

It frees people from slavery and degrading treatment or punishment. THE Children Act 1989 The aims of the legislation are to make sure all the authorities make equal provision to support children, young people and their families.It has a general duty to safeguard and promote the welfare of children within the area.

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This act aims to resolve disputes between parents and their children. The Act also includes the support of children with disabilities who, when they reach the age of 18, come under the NHS and Community Care Act 1990. The Children Act also helps those who have custody over the children. ( i. e. If the parent divorce and they do not know who has rights of the child/children.

) It promotes anti-discriminatory practice by laying out the final law in regards to who has custody over the child. The Court will only make an order if it is better for the child than making no order. Consideration of the welfare checklist assists the Court in making this decision. In all cases when the Court determines any question with respect to the child’s upbringing, the child’s welfare shall be the paramount consideration.

Every child matters change for children 2003 The legislation considers the well-being of children and young people from birth to age of 19.There are five principles that should be considered despite any circumstances a child should be 1. Stay safe 2.

Be healthy 3. Enjoy and achieve 4. Make a positive contribution 5. Experience economic well-being Every Organisation working with children and young people must work together to protect children from harm and help them achieve their goals.

Information will be gathered concerning vulnerable groups so that support strategies can be put in place. Children and young people will be involved in decision making processes.In the past it has been argued that children and families have received poorer services because of the failure of professionals to understand each other’s roles or to work together effectively in a multi-disciplinary manner. ECM seeks to change this, stressing that it is important that all professionals working with children are aware of the contribution that could be made by their own and each other’s service and to plan and deliver their work with children and young people accordingly. Information will be gathered so that support strategies can be put in place and children and young people can have a say in the decisions made about them.Organisations of Care provision In England and Wales, each LA has a department responsible for looked after children, safeguarding and ensuring that children and young people in the local area are supported to meet their full potential. As well as government care provision, much care is provided through voluntary or charitable organisations that may provide some services independently, such as holidays for disabled children, or may be contracted by LAs and paid to deliver services for children and young people on behalf of the LA.

Organisations such as Barnardo’s and the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) are examples of charity organisations and voluntary sector. The NSPCC has an emergency helpline and is the only non-government agency allowed to take direct action to protect children at risk. It is only the private charity which has been granted statutory powers under the Children Act 1989, allowing it to apply for care and supervision orders for children at risk.This makes the NSPCC unique in terms of charity. In 2009 as part of its new organisational strategy, NSPCC launched its Child Protection Consultancy service. This provides training, consultancy and learning resources to organisations to organisations that have contact with children ranging from schools to sporting bodies. Through the work of its Children Protection Consultancy the NSPCC aims to make organisations safer for children and thereby prevent cruelty to children..

There are also a number of fostering organisations, such as the British Association for Fostering and Adoption (BAFF) and the Fostering Network – an organisation for everyone involved in fostering, whether personally or professionally. Most third-sector organisations are registered charities, obtaining their income from various sources, including individual donations, national and local government. They may have to bid for contracts to carry out work for local or national government.Central Government is responsible for care through the Department of Health which is responsible for public health issues, and policy making. The Home Office is responsible for Prisons and Youth Offender Schemes and also for Immigration and Asylum applications, all of which may involve children and young people. The Different ways to protect children is to Follow legislations and policies, CRB checks, Ofsted, Health and safety Make sure you trust the people and it is safer for them to work.

Sign policy and make sure that they follow what the company is says.Care order protects the welfare of the child. The National Health Service is responsible for delivering all types of health care, including care for the disabled and those with learning difficulties. They also have a duty of care to assist the families of users. Within The NHS there are a variety of regulatory bodies who oversee the professionals, such as the BMA, the Nursing and Midwifery Council. Staff will work with other agencies and a multi-disciplinary team will be involved in the overall care plan Types of provision of carepermanent care :Adoption Adoption is the legal process whereby children are brought up in a new family, who take on all the legal rights and responsibilities. Children and young people are taken for adoption depending on their circumstances, as an alternative to different foster placements; however, it remains easier to place babies than older children or disabled children with adoptive parents.Before the parents are legalised as actual parents they should go through lots of assessments and procedures before they legally get a child Foster Permanent Permanent Foster care is when a child or children is cared for by a person or people who are not members of their own birth family for a short term but could go on for long term if the child has on going needs.

Permanent carers provide a commitment to a child or young person until they reach independence. Being a permanent carer for a child or young person will essentially mean that they come part of your family, but unlike adoption the legal powers regarding the child or young person will remain with the local authority.Most permanent carers are either adding to their existing family, have been temporary carers to the child or young person or wish to care for children and young people whilst having the support of the team around the child. Residential care could also become permanent because child has on going needs and there are problems that are affecting their upbringing. Children may be taken into residential care for various reasons perhaps as respite for a family unit or as a temporary emergency situation in an abusive family situation.Residential childcare may be arranged for children with behavioural difficulties so that specialised staff are available to interact them.

Types of temporary care Respite care can also be classified as temporary care because it is organised for a family with difficulties and special needs, especially when parents need rest or holiday to spend some time in different environments from each other that is in different circumstances. Temporary Foster Care is providing temporary care to children and young people who are in need of it.Temporary carers are full-time and can have part-time work and dependent children. Children and young people who are placed in temporary foster homes can be there from 3 weeks to 2 or more years. The temporary carer will work as part of the team around the child or young person to effect change which would allow the child or young person to return home or move on to permanent care. Temporary carers are must be flexible and they need to help young people and have contact with their families, meet with professionals and accept children or young people into their family at very short notice.In a few months or many years a child could be placed in a foster home and a foster carer can be paid, the foster home could last as long as the home is suitable for child and family.

Emergency Foster care is ideally short term where foster parents need to be flexible and prepared cause they could be called urgently during the night or anytime of the day. Foster parents should be checked for suitability to keep the child and adaptable, even their homes should be checked for safety. Most children and young people will arrive in an emergency and will have anxieties about being separated from their families.They need compassion, consistency of care and patience. Type of services Health education and social services are provided for all children and young people; however, some services are provided to all children, others specifically for those needing additional help.

There are three main types of health services available to children and young people; universal services, specialist services and targeted services. Universal services are health, education and social services available for all children and young people.Specialist services are for all those with particular health or care needs and targeted services are only available to a few children and families specific needs. There is considerable overlap because some children and families have different needs at different times. Local government includes Health –this provided by the NHS which is National Government Universal health services are mainly primary care services, focusing on the prevention and detection of ill health and early intervention. They consist of the early years and health visiting services, and the school health services for whole child population.Early years and health visiting services Deliver family-centred preventive and public health services to pre-school children and their families.

The key aims are to promote health and well-being and to intervene early where health or development may be at risk. Settings where universal services are provided include: * Community health centres * GP practices * Sure start settings/children’s centres * Specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) * Hospital outpatient departments * Hospital-based maternity services School health servicesOffer a needs-based approach to the provision of health care in schools for children and young people aged 4 to 18years. Key aims are to promote health with school children, their families and wider community, carrying school activities and working with public health.

School health services are often provided in * Special schools * Mainstream schools * Other health settings * Extended schools and extended special schools A small percentage of school health services are offered in residential children’s homes and children’s day care services (e. g Sure Start children’s centres).Universal services are usually delivered by primary care trusts (PCTs). Specialist health services are for children and young people with particular health problems. Services for children with special needs Are provided specifically for children with long-term or life-threatening conditions, those with a disability, (including learning disabilities, physical disabilities and sensory impairment) and children with complex health needs.

Targeted health services are aimed at children with particular needs, focusing on prevention and early intervention.Education services are a universal provisionThrough the Children Act 2004 and the Children and Young Person’s Act 2008, schools have responsibility for promoting the well-being and achievement of all children, especially the outcomes for looked after children and young people, in line with the Every Child Matters agenda. They also have a duty to cooperate with other agencies to ensure children remain healthy, safe and protected. One of the care providers are Social workers were they supports families with children who present problems and difficulties in a wide range of areas.A social worker’s job is to protect and safeguard children. They also protect children and this is done by them recognising how a child is being treated. Some people work as multi-disciplinary team and a multi-disciplinary team is basically a team of professionals which drawn from a range of disciplines. Health visitors visit every family when a baby is born and they provide advice and support on a wide range of situations to make sure that they are being treated well and equally.

Who the services are aimed at?Whether it is universal or specialist Independent providers and organisations Private nurseries usually cater for children from birth up to the age of four. The staff must be trained early years and there may be some members of staff who are working towards a recognised qualification. The arrangements for childcare are usually made on an individual basis between the nursery and the family, as the provision required will vary considerably. Child-minders are suitably qualified individuals, who use their own home as the setting for looking after children and young people.The venue and personnel involved undergo vigorous inspections and they must be trained and registered by the local authority as child-minders. Organisations such as Barnardo’s and the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) are examples and British Association for Adoption and Fostering are nationally recognised for their work in caring for their work in caring for the needs of children and young people. Following the 2004 Children Act , agencies providing universal services for children and families, such as health and education , were required to work together with LAs in children‘s trusts.Integrated working aimed to identify children with additional needs for care, protection or support earlier intervention.

A simple process was therefore designed to enable any practitioner in the children’s workforce to carry out holistic assessment of children’s needs and strengths. This is the Common Assessment Framework, used to identify what support children and families need, improve integrated working, form the baseline for a formal referral to social services where a child or young person is thought to at risk or in need. The universal services are open to all children can be used by all those who need them.Children’s Universal Services, including health visitors and school nurses, support children and young people 0 – 19 years to be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve. They are involved in the preventing of ill health. The service works closely with all community partners to support families to access the health information and services appropriate to their need. Sometimes we arrange for children to live away from their families, either as part of a voluntary arrangement or as the result of a care order.

It can be for a short break or sometimes for a longer period of time.The length of time will depend upon the child’s needs and the family circumstances. Parents continue to have responsibility for their children while they are away from home but this responsibility is shared with Social Services if the child is subject to a Care Order. Children can be looked after for all sorts of reasons.

For example: A parent may be unable to continue caring for them, They may be at risk of harm and need to move to a safer place , A parent may be ill or may need to go into hospital and there is no other family members or friends available to look after them The care giversROLE AND MAIN REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB Social workers are workers that work with children and they assist families by helping them cope with and solve issues in their everyday lives, such as family and personal problems and dealing with relationships. Some social workers help clients who face a disability, life-threatening disease, Ensuring that looked-after children are safeguarded in a foster family, children’s home or other placement, running support groups and training courses. They also solve social problem, such as inadequate housing, unemployment, or Matching and placing children.Social workers also assist families that have serious domestic conflicts, sometimes involving child or spousal abuse, Recruitment, assessment and training of new foster carers. They can also work out of hours support to carers and emergency placements.

Social workers Work environment: usually spend most of their time in an office or residential facility, but they also may travel locally to visit clients, meet with service providers, or attend meetings. Some may meet with clients in one of several offices within a local area.Full-time social workers usually work a standard 40-hour week, but some occasionally work evenings and weekends to meet with clients, attend community meetings, and handle emergencies. Some work part time, particularly in voluntary non-profit agencies. Social workers qualifications : A bachelor’s degree is the minimum requirement for entry into the occupation, but some positions require an advanced degree also voluntary work is essential. The Humans rights Act suggests the right to life and education which is essential as a social worker where you have to consider the Act as a worker or client.

As a social worker you should consider child protection responsibilities to safeguarding the child from further harm, Promoting the child’s health and development, Provided it is in the best interests of the child, to support the family and wider family members to promote the welfare of their child and ensuring that a local authority meets their specific duties to organise and plan services and to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Health Visitor Health visitor visit every family when a baby is born, once the specialist skills of the midwife are no longer required.The health visitor is a nurse with further qualifications in other aspects of childcare. They have a key role to play in the identification of children who may be being abused and also in the interventions to protect children.

As visitors to the home as part of a universal service, health visitors are in a position to understand and identify the risk factors and recognise when children are in need of support or protection. Health visitors have an in-depth knowledge of child health and development.Their work with children and families in promoting, assessing and monitoring health and development means they have an important role to play in all the stages of the child protection process. Their view of children across a broad spectrum of health, social, economic and educational circumstances puts them in an ideal position to identify normal limits for children and assess when children fall outside these parameters.

They have contact with school age children through their direct work in schools. Code of Practice for Employers of Health Service Workers: sets down the responsibilities of employers in the regulation of health workers.The code requires that employers abide to the standards set out in their code, support health service workers in meeting their code and take appropriate action when workers do not meet expected standards of conduct. The Code makes sure people are suitable to enter the workforce and understand their roles and responsibilities.

Specifically: Giving staff clear information about their roles and responsibilities, relevant legislation and the organisational policies and procedures they must follow in their work.

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