Hannahoxlade –Dissertation Contents introductionliterature review Primary dataDiscussionConclusionbibliography IntroductionThe initial aim of this study is to find out to what degree of autonomy has the shift through women having their ownbodies, the key aims is to understand why, how and when the shifted transformedthe revolutionary impact in today’s society for women.
Background literature will form the foundation for the research. Two separateareas have been examined; the impact women have had in the last 50 yearsalongside the shift of the way they are seen into fashion trends Literature review to grasp the true development, within the history of women. Is to firstlyunderstand the long history of modern, urban, industrial society, thus thedevelopment of a separation between the public and private spheres. Although,there was often a gender based division of labour and the male dominance, thisdeveloped within the cities, Industry and capitalism, of course the publicsphere, dominated only by men. Restricted, controlled and somewhat made womenunwanted, lead them to be constricted to the private sphere.
This was to be athome along with looking after her children, her husband and the home itself!Women had little involvement on anything public, political and economic. Indeedthere were a few women involved in the public sphere but even then, there wasways that controlled and restricted them from being entirely involved in thepublic sphere (or a man’s world). Yet Women’s aspiration particularly began to change after the First World War,Women before the war, were continuously told that their soft, fragile andinferior to all men. The restrictions of society and the war had a sudden shiftfor women’s opinion of themselves as women. This temporary role ofresponsibility and leadership handed over in the moment of crisis.
That theposters put up to prompt the women of the country to, show what they’re worth,that the propaganda for enlisting these women that two aspects that patrioticappeal, the positive “do your part” and the negative “a soldier may die, if youdon’t do your part” warning. Thecampaign slogan “The More Women at Work-The Sooner We’ll Win”promised women that their contributions could bring their men home sooner areinforced mobilisation by gender.This shift had a completely different impact on the way these women’s liveschanged, women were equal not in the eyes of the laws, sociality or anythingaccording to men, but within the progress the women keeping the country safehelped them have a sense of a man’s role and responsibility. Campaigns exhorted them to nurse injuredservicemen, temporarily take up untraditional occupations, and to manufacturearms for the front.
Numerous publications valorised ‘our adaptable women’, nowfarmers, station-masters, stokers, railway greasers, bricklayers, carpenters,butchers, brewers, and chimney sweeps. “How to reconcile the paradox that the samewomen who made the bullets and shells, responsible for the deaths of so many,would also be the mothers of the next generation?”Theillusions about a better world for women, lurked in the back of their mindseven when the war was over and their husbands, fathers and sons came home,taking back what was “rightfully” theirs, the women of the war went back towhat was left of their day to day life while the men continued as they havealways was it just a role planted by men over history, that women are theinferior gender. Yes in great deal the Second World War gave even more hope,for the liberation of women trying to work hard, be equal.In 1958, Fiona MacCarthy was one of many girls to be present at BuckinghamPalace, these debutantes made a formal curtsey to their monarch. It began, thestarting point of the examination, of the way the aristocracy was forced tochange its ways and behaviour in the 20th century. Although theseactivities continued in private.As the shift caused the “good girl” to revolt, like the women’s suffragemovement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Theconfidence, that women’s involvement into society in the 1960’s early 70s werein some respect the turning point, it was a sense of new freedom and the newaspirations. The autonomy that many generations of women before them desired tohave, breaking through the patriarchy system. Freud stated, that women were tobe ruled by men, and her sickness was to envy himHEo1 . Although Freud would be enraged withanger if he could see how far we have got! Theold prejudice- women are animals, less than human, unable to think like men,born merely to breed and serve men’.Spreading over the whole of the United kingdoms,the women’s liberation movement of the 1960s, ’70sand ’80s gathered together women, of many class, race, age,sexuality and disability.
Forming small consciousness-raising groups and women’s centres, these groups supported the movement eitherin their local community centres or a basic rooms in their own homes. Operatedon women reclaiming, exploring and having full control over their own bodies.These women could find a place of peace and freedom as they worked together hold meetings, run workshops, socialising,and provide advice about their bodies, feeling, and their role to theirhusbands and children.For some women this was a place where they took temporary refuge away from thedomestic trouble of the home unlike Jalna Hanmer(sisterhood British library talks about consciousness-raising groups in shesates that even throughout being a part of the group for many years she felt asif she didn’t have anything to talk about ” I never told them anything, I wasthe least bit interested in discussing anything personal really, in themgroups” but this did not stop her fromattending regular meetings for many years.
Manyof the campaigns for the movement grew out of these small groups and women’scentres, the impact of trying take that step forward for the women’sliberation. Some women apart of these consciousness-raisinggroups designed and created leaflets,posters and newsletters. This was their own ways of spreading the news toothers and encouraging women and girls to join the movement and help othersunderstand about the oppression, making women question the conditions of their lives, and their relationshipswith men, as those women were about to enter living their lives; of rapidsocial and cultural change of the sixties. “They were required to talk becausethat’s the way you discover your oppression” Jalna Hanmer, sister hood date,the British library. The first conference that the Women’s liberation movement (WLM) held was on the28th February 1970 in Oxford. “Notto plead for concession but to demand rights”.Almost six hundred women attended, most of these women were a part of the consciousness-raising groups or individuals who came tosupport the movement. During thisconference “topics range from houseware, to politics, women in third worldcountries and the trade union, there were large sessions and smaller discussions”for the demands for women to have equal pay, Equal educational/jobopportunities, Free contraception and abortion on demand and Free 24-hournurseries.
This was only the beginning in the defining women’s liberation, astep forward.Because of this first conference and the massive audience it gathered, thesewomen didn’t stop there. In the coming year, without them knowing they wereabout to make a revolutionary impact for women. There were seven moreconferences that helped the legalisation and financial independence for allwomen, the right to a self-defined sexuality. Ending the discrimination againlesbians along with what many generations of women would have desired to havefreedom from intimidation by the treat or use of violence and sexual coercionregardless of marital status; and an end to the laws, assumptions andinstitutions which perpetuate male dominance and aggression to women. spurring over the united states of America Betty Friedan prompted a reactionfrom all women, the feminine mystiquewhich held the example of the bored miserable housewife of America, as anargument that women were not destined to find happiness solely throughmaintaining a house hold and so second wave feminism defined its aims in muchmore definition to the liberation encouraging women to do their part; to makelife meaningful “millions of women lived their lives in the image ofthose pretty pictures of the American suburban housewife, kissing theirhusbands good-bye in front of the picture window, depositing their stationwagons full of children at school, and smiling as they ran the new electric waxover the spotless kitchen floor. They baked their own bread, sewed their ownand children’s clothes, and kept their new washing machines and dryers runningall day…..
” The recognition of how inthe previous centuries on how the system worked mainly benefiting the maledominance, although the men did not understand why their wives wanted to workwhen their jobs were to the home. An over bearable image in my mind, the laws that contained the women into the privatesphere of marriage, gender over rights. The mystery that they couldn’t solve,”the problem that has no name”In today’s society there are many things stillworth fighting for but will it take women another 50 years to have full rightsover their bodies?”.
..women who ‘adjust’ as housewives, who grow up wanting to be ‘just ahousewife,’ are in as much danger as the millions who walked to their own deathin the concentration camps..
.they ate suffering a slow death of mind andspirit.” it wasn’t that the feminists did not want to be attractive or didn’tappreciate beauty but more the image of the women propagated by the advertisingindustries. The Women’s Liberation Movementresisted ideas of beauty, manufactured in the marketplace, instead embracingbeautiful women of all ages, sizes and types.
Its main focus was of thephysical, mental and spiritual self-possession and confidence of every women,even those whom were too scared to join because their husbands “disapproved” ofit because it wasn’t the way of the system, but the answer is simple.”It isdifficult to imagine a slavery more senseless, cruel, or far-reaching in itsinjurious consequences than that imposed by fashion on civilized womanhoodduring the past generation. Her health has been sacrificed, and in countlessinstances her life has paid the penalty; while posterity has been dwarfed,maimed, and enervated, and in body, mind, and soul deformed at its behests. …The tight lacing required by the wasp waists has produced generations ofinvalids and bequeathed to posterity suffering that will not vanish for manydecades. By it, as has been pointed out by the authorities cited, every vitalorgan in the body has been seriously affected.” Flower BO.
Fashion’s slaves. Boston:Arena Pub. Co.; 1892It is understandable these women of a particular feminist views, donot think that it is right for the women to adhere to fashion; as to them itwould only continue this oppression, that has held women hostage for century’sGeorg Simmel’s 1895 essay on fashion addresses the social cohesion that allowswomen to have often participated in fashion because of the motivational art ofimitation and distinction which placed them out of the public sphere, this iswhy women somewhat women accepted their supposed inferiority and staked theirworth on their ability to attract men.Certainly women took part in a system that does not take consideration in theirown comfort, the focus on the socially accepted ideals of femininity. Theoppression of corset’s, not only imposed specific ideals of feminine beautyupon women but also restricted the women who could not work in factories or thefields when wearing such restrictive clothing, the tightly laced corset reducedlung capacity, irritated the skin and weaken the back.
just to achieve thathour glass figure by tightly lacing up the corset would potentially change theshape of the rib cage, medical professions came out protesting that the womenwore these corsets and it caused more harm than the women thought. Throughoutmy research I have come across Dr. O’Followell, The Corset, History, Medicine, Hygiene…
Medical Study, with a preface from Dr. Lion 1908 from the photos below ofthe transformation of the waist there is no evidence that women had lower ribs removedto decrease their waist, this was done by deFig. 26: Female torso with corset.Fig 27: X-ray of a female torso without a corset.
In O’Followell, Le Corset,vol. 2, 1908.The restrictions and the way they believe that women adhere to the progressionof women within fashion, it is an unfortunately truth that feminism and fashionhaven’t always seen eye to eye, “the relationship between two suffering due to,two opposing ideas; Fashion is a powerful tool women can use to forge identityand influences others, or that fashion is a force that oppresses women were” Neverthe less, as the rise of the movement flowed in, so did the opportunity tochange the look of the women, indeed the women’s liberation movement resistedideas of what the idea of beauty, the notion of femininity was challenged, bymany the feminist! cady Stanton has held throughout much of feminism history; it is impossible to be both feminine and fashionablePrimary data The research that I will conduct will focus on the opportunity that willprovided a better understanding of what women think about their own liberation.The questionnaire has mainly focused on an end disscuion that will impact myown conclusion; I mainly want to focus on how women of the 21stcentury should do to move forward the rights to their own bodies and how thefashion industry has turned the idea of being a feminist into more in fashionthan demanding the rights of liberation!my questions: I have basic knowledge of the meaning of feminist/feminist movement? Yes/noDo you think women should be able to work in the government? Do you think that women aren’t moving forward with their right to liberate inthe 21st century?DO you think that women have fulfilled their full potential in the liberationmovement? Do you think it will take another 50 years for women to have full control overtheir bodies? Do you think every women should be apart of the feminist movement or group? Is is normal for women in nthis day and age to obsess abouttheir looks does the word feminist or feminism have the same impact in this day and age asit did in the 1960sHas fashion turned being a feminist into a fashion trend for todays generation?What constitutes masculinity and femininity in this day and age? Results: The responses were analysed using grounded theory and thefollowing themes identified: Bracelets were the most popular item of jewellery amongst the participants andwere frequently being worn in large quantities.
The most common bracelets wereplaited cotton friendship bracelets, rubber charity bands and festival entrybands. DiscussionAfter my results I will format them into a summary of the discussed questions Conclusionknowingly over the last sixty years the liberation of women has been one of themost important movements for social justice along with gender. Howeverthroughout this paper, I have not only widened my own knowledge of the subjectbut also I have begun to question the life of women now and what it now mean tobe a women.Yet it seems that in this day and age there is “smoke screen” of “choice andagency is widely supported not only by the beauty industries, media, magazinepublications and fashion but as JenniferBaumgardner authors of Manifesta: Young Women,Feminism, and the Future suggested in this day and age that feminism isn’tabout what choice you make, but it is the freedom in what you choose thatshould liberate you as a women. Women of the generations went into marryingearly, the denial of everything educational, to rape and domestic violence. Yet it is widely believed that feminismhas been achieved its aims and achievements in being “equal” or now having morepower than the male dominance but I believe that we haven’t helped enough tosupport the women of the movement, have we really come to the end? HEo1indeed siggumd freud grow up with his attuide built around hisculture.
Not only was the culture of Victorian Europe, but jewish culture! Hisviews on women were that women were a strange, inferior, less-than-humanspecies. When the noise of his sister playing the piano interrupted his studies’the piano would disappear’, anna frued recalled ‘and with all opportunitiesfor his sister to become musicians