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Modifying plants is not a new concept. “For centuries, gardeners and farmers have been crossbreeding different species of plants to create plants that produce heartier, better tasting, or more beautiful crops. ” (Maternal) However, crossbreeding of plants is acceptable to most individuals where as genetically modifying foods is not. According to the paper Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize ” Currently, no regulatory authority requests mandatory chronic animal feeding studies to be performed for edible Smog and formulated pesticides. (S¬©railing)This is a major once to many individuals who have been unaware that they were consuming Smog’s in the first place. The genetic engineering of foods that is called Smog’s causes many concerns around the world. To genetically engineer a plant one must first obtain genes from an animal, plant, bacterium, or virus. These genes are then inserted into a different organism, usually a plant, which changes the genetic code of the plant forever. The genetic code, or the blueprint that is used to determine all of the organisms physical characteristics are changed within the organisms, this is where people tend to have a problem with Smog’s.

According to the paper How to Deal with the Upcoming Challenges in GUM Detection in Food and Feed ” In many countries legislations concerning GUM commercialism’s have been adopted and although they differ from country to country, some issues are common. ” (Sylvia R. M. Brooders) But, does it make the process by which these new foods are made? With this biotechnology many scientist have been able to create tomatoes that last longer on store shelves, soybeans that are resistant to weed killers, potatoes that can produce pesticides, even make glow in the dark fish and puppies. Not all things that happen with Smog are bad.

Scientist are working to make fruits, vegetables, and even grains that are higher in levels of vitamins and nutritional value. There is even talk of vaccines that can fight diseases being produced in food as well. Many people have voiced concerns over food allergies and toxins that may be present in Smog’s. At this point in time it is unknown what the health risk are when it comes to consuming genetically altered foods. And, with very few studies that have been performed to find out how these GUM foods effect human health we may never fully know if there is a health risk involved.

That is why this lab is important. No matter what position, or or against, a person is for the consumption of GUM foods it is beneficial to all of us to be able to test to see if Smog’s are present in the food we eat. To do so we learned about two methods, enzyme-linked misfortune assay, or ELISE, which was not useful in our lab experiment because the foods we were testing were very highly processed and the proteins were most likely destroyed. Instead we used polymerase chain reaction, or PC to look for DNA sequences that are common in GUM foods.

My hypothesis for this experiment was that we would be able to detect Smog in most if not all of the processed foods that we tested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the first part of the experiment we needed to extract DNA from different food samples. In the second part of the lab we ran PC reactions to amplify GUM and natural plant sequences from the DNA, in the third part of the experiment we electrophoresis the amplified samples to visualize the DNA. To perform each step listed above we needed certain reagents for each process for DNA Extraction we needed a control non-GUM food sample and a testable food sample.

Water and a mortar and pestle to grind the sample. Instant gene Matrix was added to two tubes and a water bath. To perform PC Reactions we needed DNA template that ere going to amplify, DNA polymerase, two DNA primers, four DNA base pair subunits and buffers. For electrophoresis we needed PC product that we collected, molecular weight ruler, and fast blast for staining. DNA Extraction- For this experiment we used blueberries as our possible GUM food and were given a non-GUM of certified grain as our Non-GUM test sample. Before handling any samples we first needed to label two screw cap tubes with our names, date, and non-GUM and test.

After labeling pill of Instigate matrix was added to each tube. A mortar and pestle, that was cleaned with a mixture of bleach and eater was used to maintain a sterile environment for the non-GUM food. Weighed out 1. 95 g of non-GUM certified grain and placed them in the mortar. Using a transfer pipette added ml of distilled water for every gram of food. (See calculations part 1) Grinded the non-GUM certified grain with a pestle for 2 minutes until a slurry formed in the mortar. Added another ml of distilled water for every gram of food, mixed until it was smooth enough to pipette.

Removed ply of the slurry and placed it into the screw cap tube that already contained the pill of Instigate Matrix labeled non-GUM. Recapped the tube, shook well. Washed the mortar and pestle with a mix of bleach and water to make sure it was clean for the test food. Weighed out 1. Egg of blueberries(test food 2) and placed into the mortar. Used a transfer pipette and added ml of distilled water for every gram of food. (See calculations part 2) Grinded the blueberries with a pestle for 2 minutes until a slurry formed in the mortar.

Added another ml of distilled water for every gram of food, mixed until it was smooth enough to pipette. Removed 50111 of the slurry and placed it into the screw cap tube that already contained the pill of Instigate Matrix labeled test. Recapped the tube, shook well. Washed the mortar and pestle with a mix of bleach and water to make sure it was clean for the test food. Weighed out 1. Egg of peanuts(test food 1) and placed it into the mortar. Used a transfer pipette added ml of distilled water for every gram food. (See calculations part 3) Grinded the peanuts with a pestle for 2 minutes until a slurry formed in the mortar.

Added another ml of distilled water for every gram of food, mixed until it was smooth enough to pipette. Removed ply of the slurry and placed it into the screw cap tube that already contained the pip of Instigate Matrix labeled test. Recapped the tube, and shook well. Washed the mortar and pestle with a mix of bleach and water and put it away for later use if necessary. Turned on the heat block and set the temperature to 95 co. Once the heat block reached the appropriate temperature we placed both samples labeled non- GUM and test onto the heat block for 5 minutes starting at 10:AMA and ending at 10: Imam.

Placed both tubes into a centrifuge machine and spun for another 5 minutes at Max speed. Stored the tubes in the refrigerator till the next lab. PC Reactions- To begin we needed to label eight PC tubes with our initials, date, and sample. See table 1 for labels) Using a fresh pipette for each tube we added 20 Pl of green plant master mix to tubes 1,3,5,and 7. Added 20 Pl of GUM master mix to tubes 2,4,6, and 8. Capped each tube to keep sample uncontaminated. With a new pipette for each tube added 20 Pl of non-gum sample to tubes 1 and 2.

Added 20 Pl of test food 1 to tubes 3 and 4, added 20 Pl of test food 2 to tubes 5 and 6, and last but not least added 20 Pl of GUM positive control to tubes 7 and 8. Placed all 8 samples into the thermal cycled for the indicated processing time in table 2. Electrophoresis- We needed and had to setup an electrophoresis chamber as pictured in image 1 . And a 3% Agrees gel that we cast inside the electrophoresis chamber. To make the gel we used 20 ml of 10 EXTENT and added it to Mimi of water to dilute the 10 EXTENT to 1 EXTENT. Used 50 ml of 1 EXTENT and added 0. Grams of Agrees to the 1 EXTENT and microwaves the mixture until all sediment was gone. Cooled the mixture to room temperature and poured it into the designated chamber inside the electrophoresis setup. Waited until it solidified and then removed the comb and poured additional 1 EXTENT over the gel and filled the side chambers of the electrophoresis setup. Returned to the 8 samples after setting up the electrophoresis chamber and started adding 10 Pl of Orange G loading dye to each tube and mixed well. Loaded the gel with 20 Pl of ladder and sample in the order listed in table 3 under Results and Data Electrophoresis.

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