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Some of the Spaniards described them as the most blessed on Earth. ” (p. 9) After Lass Cases established the fact that the indigenous people were far from deserving of the treatment they received due to their innocence, he described of how horrific the torture methods were.

When describing how the Spaniards treated the indigenous people he says, ‘they treated them worse than beasts, with less regard than one treats a pile of manure in the road” (p. 1 1) Lass Cases makes it very evident that the Spaniards had no regard for the indigenous people and went to extreme measures to torture them.As Lass Cases continues to describe the horrible vents that occurred, it is clear that Lass Cases was extremely disgusted with what he saw. Rightfully so, he exposed these Spaniards in a way that made them seem like the devil himself. I got a sense that Bartholomew De As Cases was slightly embarrassed that he originally came to Hispanic in the conquest of Hispanic.

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I think that Lass Cases gains credibility since he was once part of the Spaniard Christians that came to take over Hispanic.This shows that the actions of the Spaniards were so bad that it made their own kind revolt against them and devote their life to stopping the terrible things that were happening. Lass Cases felt very strongly in his disgust of the way the indigenous people were treated and he properly shows this in his account. General History of the Indies, Francisco Lopez De Samara It was very interesting to read Samara’s account of the conquest in comparison to La Cases’. These two accounts are so different that it almost feels like they are writing about two different events.You could tell while reading Samara’s account that he was writing it from the Spaniards side. It was apparent that Samara was in favor of the Spaniards when he starts the account by saying the discovery of Hispanic was the greatest event since he creation of the world. Am sure that Lass Cases and all the indigenous people would strongly disagree with that statement.

Samara goes on to talk about the people of Hispanic and criticizes their society. He claims that since they are not Christian they are terrible beasts who “commit great sins c idolatry and human sacrifice, eating human flesh and conversing with the devil. (p. 14) Since he is writing this to the King of Spain he makes sure to as) that the ones who were subject to the King had been converted to Christianity. Lass Cases’ writing was very different when talking about the people and their religion. He described them as very peaceful people and even though they were not Christian, they were very reluctant in learning about the religion.

After reading the entire account it is of no surprise that Samara never actually visited Hispanic. His views are extremely biased NC favor the actions of the Spaniards.He even goes as far to say that it is unfortunate that Spain did not have enough resources to capture more of Hispanic. The difference between Lass Cases’ account and Samara’s account was most evident when they each reported how many indigenous people occupied the island. Lass Cases reports the drastic decrease of indigenous people as a pure tragedy whereas Samara reports the figures as an accomplishment.

Samara makes it very clear in his account that he differs from Lass Cases in that he favors the conquest of Hispanic.The True Historic of the Conquest of New Spain, Vernal Ditz del Castillo & A General History of New Spain, Bernardino De Shogun The two accounts from Castillo and Shogun were very different in terms Of details when describing the event Of the meeting of Montague. Castillo account offers very little detail in what happened after Montague and Cortes greeted each other.

Castillo focused more on the Spaniards approach into the city of Denunciation. He describes the interaction between Montague and Cortes as very proper.Each leader of their respective party had gifts for the other leader and greeted them with open arms. Castillo describes Montague as a welcoming host and wanted t treat the Spaniards as guests. This was very different from Shogun ;s account of this interaction between the two leaders. When Shogun describes this initial interaction, he makes It seem like Montague and the rest of the Aztec were waiting for Cortes to come and be their king.

According to Shogun, the Aztec wanted to serve Cortes and that they have been waiting for that day for years.Castillo never mentioned this type of encounter in his account. Gangue’s account also differed from Castillo when he talks about the events that occurred after the initial meeting. Shogun writes that the Cortes and his Spanish followers made Montague a prisoner and striped al the sacred items of their gold. He talks of the terror that the Aztec felt for the Spaniards.

Gangue’s account reminds me more of Lass Cases’ account in that they both talk of the terrible actions of the Spaniards. Royal commentaries 01 the Incas, Gracious del la Vega The Incas did not have horse before the Spaniards arrived.Horses were highly desired in the early days of the conquest because they were rare. The) were very expensive until the Indians started to breed them and the amount of horses increased. La Vega states that the Indians were very scared of horses at first but as time went on they became more comfortable around them. Another animal that the Incas did not have before the Spanish came to their land were cows and oxen. The Incas were unaware of the practice of using animals to do work for them. An example of this was having oxen plow fields for them.

This was a very strange practice to the Incas and the Incas criticized the Spaniards at first by calling them lazy. The Incas also did not have camels, donkeys, mules, sheep, goats, pigs, or dogs. All of these animals were brought over by the Spanish. There were also many crops and fruits that the Incas did not have such as wheat, barely, grapes, pomegranates, oranges, apples, limes, pears, peaches, apricots, plums, and many more. Finally, La Vega lists the most important thing the Spanish brought which was themselves and black slaves.The Spanish were obviously very different than the Incas and stuck out. La Vega explains that over time the white Spaniards and black slaves combined and produced mixed breeds of people.

There became names for each new race depending on the parents’ origin. There were also social classes that the new races belonged to, based on the color or origin of their parents. The First New Chronicle, Feline Gunman Pomp De Loyal pomp did not have positive feelings towards the way the indigenous people were being treated. To make his writing feel more powerful he made it seem like he was talking to the King.

Pomp addresses the king and essentially begs for mercy. He claims that the indigenous people will become extinct very soon if changes are not made in the way the Spanish treat the indigenous people. He makes a number of very good points to why the King should help the indigenous people. He states that the Spanish Kingdom depends on the indigenous people and that the indigenous people are more valuable than any other group of people. The indigenous people are the main source of creating revenue since they are the ones that do all the manual labor.It is very apparent that Pomp does not respect the way that Spanish treat the indigenous people because he goes into detail of all the terrible actions Of the Spaniards. He asks that the Spaniards stop killing and stealing the Indian women. He reports that the Spaniards continue to impregnate married Indian women but do not marry them.

This results in a large amount of messiest children. These children do not keep the Indian traditions alive and will eventually lead to the extinction of the original culture. Pomp asks that the King puts him in charge to keep the order of the people.

He also asks that the King put laws into place that prevent the Spaniards from coming into the Indian villages. Also that people be held accountable for their crimes. He seems to have very forward thinking and had Ideas that were closer to laws of later societies. Pomp was very unhappy with the treatment of indigenous people and he wanted the Spanish rulers to change the terrible actions. Personal Narrative of a Journey, Alexander Von Humboldt Von Humboldt journey seems like an extremely interesting and productive experience.

After reading his narrative, I would be encouraged to join him in his journey.He talks of the beautiful sites he saw in Havana. What liked most about his description of Havana was the joy he felt in seeing these new elements.

I cannot imagine the feeling of seeing an environment that was so strange that it seemed like a new world. I enjoyed his in-depth discussion of how the city had changed due to civilization. I also found it very interesting that Von Humboldt was keeping a catalog of all the different plants on the island. I would especially like to join him in this journey because he was doing important work for science.I also think it would be an extraordinary experience to be able to have a part in naming some of the new plants.

That is an opportunity to leave a legacy long after you die. When Von Humboldt alls of his travels through the Andes Mountains and states that this was a very productive trip since he was able to correct the location of eighty inland points, map the Magdalene River, and collect new plant specimens. The only part that I would not enjoy on this journey is the fact that it took him eighteen months to travel on this trip by mules. Anton imagine a trip taking this long and am sure the terrain was very difficult to travel through at times. In all, would go with Von Humboldt on his journey because of the new experiences he encountered and his role in documenting these lands which will make his cagey last forever. Travels in Brazil, Henry Oyster Stokers account, Travels in Brazil, offers in-depth descriptions of the life of a slave. He describes the jobs they do and the way they were treated. He explains that a slave is expected to follow the same religion as his master.

The slaves are baptized as soon as they arrive and then are taught how to become a good Christian.A slave is not considered a person until he starts going to mass and confesses his sins to the priest. Oyster made it seem like the slaves did not fight against this practice.

It seems to me that many slaves would try o fight being baptized even though they would probably be beaten or killed for doing this. Oyster also explains how a slave can become free. They need to earn enough money and then they can buy their own freedom or pay for another slave’s freedom. I found it strange when Oyster discusses slaves who have bought their own freedom and then buy slaves of their own.I would think that a slave would be never want to own slaves since they endure such a tough time themselves as slaves. Although slavery is an absolutely terrible thing that happened, Oyster points out that there were some masters that did treat their slaves better than others. Some masters would try to understand the slaves’ culture and partake in some of the rituals in order to become closer to the slaves. Oyster also talks about how slaves were given the weekend off from working and were able to relax on these days.

This makes it seem more like a job even though they were still forced to do the work against their own will. Hint the overall feeling that Oyster is trying to express is that some slaves were given fair treatment He seems to be in flavor Of slavery for the good of the society but he does also express some Of the bad treatment they faced. A Mexican Self-portrait, Various Authors The various social types that are described in this piece were the china, tortillas, seamstress, and middleman’s. The china is described the most in this piece. I assume this is because she lives the most interesting life. She is described to be a very attractive young girl who enjoys having a good time.

She is very clean and likes to show off the cleanliness of her room. She always looks nice but is by no means wealthy. She struggles with money and has to pawn her jewelry to survive sometimes. Many men want this girl and often fights break out over her. The second social type that was described was the artillerist.

This type is very poor and the women are given this name because the make tortillas all day. This type does not own many possessions such as clothes or furniture. Their husbands work all day doing manual labor and come home to simply lie down and think about nothing.The author describes their life as never changing which gives them neither the future nor the past to dwell upon. The next social type was the seamstress.

This type was described as an old woman and her two daughters living together. They work all day sewing just so they can survive on the little income they receive. They re different from the tortillas because their home is very clean.

They have a few valuables but it is mostly inexpensive items. The last type that was described was the middleman’s. They are described as the hardest workers in the town. They have respectable jobs and live in nicer apartments.They do not have a great amount of money which causes them to find other methods of income other than their typical day job. The middleman’s couple that was described, had to invite people to their house and put on parties that they charged entrance for. These four types were very different in their aspirations n life but all lived fairly similar lifestyles. They all suffered with money at times and have to make sacrifices.

Evolution, Joaquin Maria Macho De Oasis The short story “Evolution” by De Oasis describes a cultural evolution and shows how important transportation was in the late 19th century.Both Of the main characters traveled to many places in South America and Europe throughout the course of the story. The progress of Brazil was often measured against the United States and Europe.

Their experiences in Europe lead them to believe that Brazil culture and development was behind that of he other countries they visited. They believed that once Brazil expanded their railways they may be able to evolve more rapidly. The characters compared Brazil to a crawling baby and said that once the railroads were expanded only then will Brazil learn to walk.

Railroads are important in cultural evolution because they help people spread ideas and materials quicker. Both characters in the story contributed to the evolution of Brazil and their belief in the railroad system but they contributed in different ways. One man took the political approach so he could tell more people about the importance Of the railroads and gain more public interest.

While the other man became more tangibly involved by collecting investors and blue prints and actually began to build more railroads in Brazil. It was visionary people like these two characters that helped Brazil evolve in the 19th century.The Stock Market, Julian Marten This story shows the separation that occurred between the wealthy and the peasant workers. The doctor in the story marveled at his new mansion and ordered his workers to light all the candles in the house so that people in the street could be envious of his house. The doctor mentions that he looks out the windows of the passer byes and looking at them made him want to “turn away in disgust”. The doctor also describes when his family goes rough the streets in their carriage that ordinary folk don’t deserve to lay their eyes on the beautiful surroundings.

Although the doctor came from a modest upbringing his new wealth made him look down on the peasant people. This shows that with the advancing progress in South America came more materialism and class conflict. The irony of the story is that it is set in a time right before the financial crisis of Argentina. This means the doctors wealth was about to become very unstable and he could likely lose his lavish lifestyle and return to modest lifestyle that he currently finds so disgusting.The Beehive, Allusion Savvied After reading Allusion Seabed’s narrative, I was able to get an idea of a topic day in the life of an immigrant in the late 1 ass’s in Latin America. Savvied depicts the town as very close together and very poor. The children play in the streets starting at sunrise which makes me think that they may not have had schools to go to.

Majority of the narrative gives background into the live f the women who spend their day washing clothes at the wells. After hearing about all the women, it seems like the women spend all day cooking, clean in: and taking care of the children while the men go to work.The narrative also gave me the impression that the young girls spend a great deal of time preparing for marriage by advancing their skills as a homemaker. It is clear that all the families were very poor and only had the bare necessities to live.

They lived tough lives and had a difficult time advancing in society. Black Stuff, Vaccine Rossi Tango, with its roots in the dance of free blacks and slaves, spread to influence the culture of Argentina, Paris, and eventually all of Europe. At first the high class women of Buenos Aries traveling in Paris, danced the tango in the upper class surroundings.Eventually, the common people of Argentina traveled to Paris and danced the tango in popular taverns. The fad spread and soon the upper class included it at music hall programs, cabarets, and other venues. By 1914 the tango, a dance with its roots with black slaves, became a very important part of the culture of the rest of the world.

Black culture made a big influence in upper and middle classes and was adopted the general public. The dance depicted the struggles of the common black person in city life with its suggestive moves and animal energy.What was so ironic was that the popular dance became so much a part of the new culture and was well accepted by those that in the past had banished the black population to slavery. The tango became such a unique and important part the culture that Europe became much more aware of Argentina and opened its door to them for other cultural exchanges.

Afterwards, there was much more openness to be aware of Argentina, and boxers and soccer players were sent to Europe and made the awareness of the country even better now.The spread of tango in Argentina and the rest of the world was a result of the influence of blacks and their culture. Declassified Message, Central Intelligence Agency Based on the secret communication I think the Central Intelligence Agency viewed Guatemala as a Christian, peace loving country with democratic values. They were victims to the communistic influence of Moscow and that they would be taken over by their soviet puppets already in place in the government. Think the Central Intelligence Agency was afraid of Guatemala becoming a communist country which would be a threat to the United StatsThey felt that if they could play up the threat to Guatemalan principles and ideals, the people would prevent the spread of the Communists. The United States feared that if Guatemala became communistic, many of the Other Central American countries would eventually fall to communism as well. The United States felt it was so important to stop this possibility that it created the plan to have the “National Liberation The plan was very comprehensive including broadcasts of messages to the public to avoid helping the current government.

It touched on all the important ideals of the population of the common Guatemalan to gain their interest.The comprehensive and desperate plan of the Central Intelligence Committee to spread the message to the public demonstrates the importance they placed on Guatemala. Confessions of a Torturer, Nancy Gunman In the interview between Nancy Gunman and Coevals Room, tough questions were asked about the torturing that Room witnessed and he gave interesting thoughts about it. Room felt like he was doing a good thing by torturing the people that he tortured because he got valuable information from them. He felt that the information he got was beneficial and saved moor people in the country.

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