Characterized by high arousal, intense attraction, and fear of rejection According to Hatfield & Birched there are three factors necessary for passionate love to occur: 1. Knowledge of what love is (e. G. , movies, books, songs etc.
) 2. Physiological arousal 3. Belief that another person is responsible for those feelings of arousal Excitation transfer theory (Gillian, 1983) arousal or excitation created from one stimuli can amplify the excitation response to a totally different stimuli due to prior excitation not completely decaying yet. Compassionate Love affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply entwined”Based on child/parent attachments For adult romantic relationships Haze and Shaver suggested this model Secure Avoiding 25% (23) Anxious (12%) According to Bartholomew there are 2 types of avoiding attachment style 1 . Fearful-avoiding negative view of self (low self-esteem), negative view of others (low interpersonal trust) 2.
Dismissing avoiding positive view of self (high self-esteem) negative view of others (low interpersonal trust) SOCIAL INFLUENCE Chapter 8 INTRODUCTION The term social influence really refers to the attempts by others to influence our ideas, thoughts, behaviors, attitudes etc.There are three different types of social influence we will discuss 1 . Conformity going along with the crowd 2.
Compliance agreeing to a direct request from someone 3. Obedience being ordered to do something CONFORMITY Conformity refers to the tendency to change Our attitudes, beliefs or behaviors in ways that are consistent with those around us. One of the first studies of conformity was conducted by Solomon Cash (1 9505) “visual judgment” studies Rest Its More than % of the participants (76%) went along at least once with others incorrect answers Of those 37% went along with the others all of the time Factors the influence conformityGroup size: conformity rates level off about after about 3 or 4 confederates Unanimity: having one confederate break with the others drastically reduced conformity Writing down answers: (as opposed to saying then out loud) conformity almost completely disappeared Attractiveness of group: we conform more when we have a strong desire to belong to a group Age: conformity is highest in adolescence Gender: people with more masculine gender roles (regardless of their gender) conform less than people with more feminine gender roles people are reluctant to break Social Norms which are unspoken, but shared rules about common, everyday behaviors.
There are n. ;vow kinds of social norms Descriptive norms which are what most people in a group think, feel or do, and Injunctive norms which is what most people in a group approve of. Why do people conform? 1. Normative influence: going along to get along (e. G. , to be liked and accepted by others). Public conformity: biblically agreeing with others, without necessarily believing them. Private acceptance: (aka private conformity) agreeing with others and genuinely believing them to be right 2.
Informational influence: going along to be right Minority influence: process whereby a small number of people in a group dead to an overall change in the group’s attitudes beliefs, or behaviors. Consistency is key! Majorities often cause public conformity because of normative influence, whereas minorities often cause private acceptance because of informational influence. COMPLIANCE Compliance: asking people directly to go along with a request; “could you do me a favor? Compliance technique 1 . Foot-in-the-door technique: the tendency for people who have already agreed to a small request to subsequently agree to a larger request 2. Door- length-face technique: first ask for a large, in reasonable request (that you now norm of reciprocity self-presentation theory 3. Free gift technique: giving someone something for free before making a great request norm of reciprocity 4.That’s-not-all technique: the requester begins with an inflated request and then, before the person has a chance to respond, the requester decreases it’s apparent size by offering either a discount or a bonus 5.
Deadline technique: people are told they only have a limited time to take advantage of some offer. (MISSED CLASS HERE) (OCTOBER 23, 2013) MALARIA VARIATIONS 1. Original Study Yale university -65% reached the 450 volt level 2. Run-down office building off campus -50% reached the 450 volt level 3.Learner sat in same room as the teacher -40% reached the 450 level 4.
Teacher holds learners hand on shock plate -30% reached the 450 volt level 5. Experimenter not in room -20% reached the 450 volt level FACTORS INFLUENCING OBEDIENCE: person: Authoritarianism Situational: Physical presence of an authority figure (“experimenter looks distinguished in white lab coat”) The use of gradual increments in shock level (“Vive already given 15 shocks, might as well keep going”) (foot in the door technique; consistency principle) The fast pace of the experimentShift of responsibility from the participant to the experimenter Nearness of the learner (“l can’t see the victim’s face”) Volunteered for the study obligated to see it through”) The Setting (“Prestigious Yale University’) STRATEGIES FOR TESTING OBEDIENCE Tell people that they will be held responsible for their actions Having another person who disobeys with them Knowing about the power of influence Proboscis Behavior Chapter 9 Proboscis behavior is any behavior that has the goal of helping another person.We have different types of help which can be seen as, Casual helping which is lending someone a pen or holding a door open. Substantial helping this involves more commitment and time such as helping a friend move, it is more of an investment Emotional helping which is providing a listening ear or shoulder to cry on Emergency help this would involve assisting a stranger after a car accident or some other public life disaster. The case of Catherine (Kitty) Geneses As people stood by she was being stabbed to death but no one would come to her rescue, no one even called the cops.
This Went On for 30 minutes and no one helped Darrel and Lateness (1968) seizure study (see results bellow) Bystander effect occurs when people are less likely to help in emergency tuitions when there are other people present than if the person who could help is alone. Diffusion of responsibility is the communal belief that other people present in a situation will take responsibility for helping. FIVE STEPS TO HELPING IN AN EMERGENCY 1.
Notice the something is happening: notice the event (is something unusual happening here? ) Baton’s (1973) seminary student study Barriers to helping at Step 1: a. Being preoccupied, distracted (egg. , Darrel and testing), busy in a hurry or drunk b. “Urban overload” hypothesis people who live in big cities are used to blocking Simi 2. Interpreting the tuition as an emergency: interpret the event as an emergency. Pluralistic ignorance when each bystander thinks that no one else is reacting because somehow this isn’t an emergency 3. Taking responsibility for providing help: take personal responsibility for helping (Mortality 1972 beach study) 4.
Deciding how to help: figure out what to do. 5. Providing Help take action by offering help Audience inhibition: failure to help in front of others, fear of looking foolish if the person does not want help. HOW CAN YOU GET HELP IN AN EMERGENCY Identify one person in the crowd, and call out to that person this eliminates he problem caused by the focusing of responsibility, because that specific person is then identified as the person who needs to provide help. Clearly label the situation as an emergency, this eliminates the problem caused by misinterpretation of the situation.Give instructions for how people can help you OTHER FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE HELPING. 1 . MOOD: does the way we fell affect how we respond to someone who needs our help? A.
Bad moods (e. G. , guilt) b. Good Moods 2. Missed 3. Personality factors a.
High in empathy is the ability to understand other people’s perspectives ND respond emotionally to other people’s experiences to put yourself in their shoes. B. High in Social Responsibility these helpers are more likely to believe that everyone should do whatever they can to help others in need c.
Low in egocentrics they are less wrapped up in their own lives (i. E. , less self- absorbed). D. Have an internal locus of control they believe that what they do can make a difference WHO GETS HELP WHEN THEY ARE IN NEED? 1 .
Attractiveness: physically attractive people get more help 2. Similarity more likely to help others who are similar to us 3. Gender women are more likely Han men to receive help however, this gender difference may exist because men are less likely to ask for help than women EXAM INFO Next Wednesday CHI. ,8,9 MAC fill in blank 5 short answer THEORIES (or models) OF PROBOSCIS BEHAVIOR 1. Empathy-altruism hypothesis: is empathetic concern for a person in need produces an altruistic motive for helping. 2. Negative-state relief hypothesis: people are motivated to help others in order to relieve their own negative feelings. 3.
Empathic joy hypothesis: people are motivated to help others minored to experience the joy their helping behavior will bring 4.Kin selection: he preferential helping of blood relations, because this will increase the odds that mutually shared genes will get passed on to subsequent generations. 5. Reciprocal altruism: helping another person so that the helped person can help you in return.
. At some future time. Missed Class Wednesday November 13, 2013 AGGRESSION AND MEDIA VIOLENCE 1. Before-and after-experiments 2. Correlation Studies: you must obtain information about how much and what type of TV shows children like to watch (do they watch mostly aggressive shows? And then relate this data to some measure of each child’s aggressiveness MAIN FINDING The children who watch the most violence on TV are the ones who behave most aggressively Criticisms Not a causal relationship Directionality and third variable problems Explanations for the relationship between Media Violence and Aggression 1 . Social learning theory : Children see attractive/powerful characters on being rewarded/praised for behaving aggressively and they copy these characters behavior because they want to e like their heroes 2.Normative 3. Desensitizing GENDER DIFFERENCES IN CARESSING Childhood Boys are more likely Athenians to to fight physically than girls HOW TO REDUCE AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR .
Physical punishment use of physical force causing pain (not wounds) as a means of discipline. 2. Skills training a. Social kills training b. Anger controls (or perspective training c. Empathy (or perspective training) 3. Modeling non-aggressive responses exposure to pro-social models.
4. Viewer education programs increase critical viewing skills 5.Incompatible response technique: you can’t feel happy and angry at the same time 6. Apology saying sorry 7.
Catharsis blowing off steam Groups and Individuals Chapter 1 1 Group a collection of people who are perceived to be bonded together in a reorient unit to some degree. Common bond group individual members are bonded to each other interpersonally (e. G. , sports team). Common identity group a group whose members are linked together via a category as a whole rather than to each other (e.
G. , Canadian) Interactivity the extent to which a group is perceived as a being a coherent entity.Drive theory of social facilitation kaka mere presence explanation) Robber Cajon The mere presence of other people increases our physiological arousal. On well-learned or easy tasks higher levels of arousal lead to better performance (social facilitation) On new or difficult tasks higher eve’s of arousal lead to worse performance (social inhibition) Evaluation apprehension theory Nicolas Cottrell We are concerned about being evaluated by others (i.
E. , an audience) increases our physiological arousal On well-learned or easy tasks higher levels of arousal lead to better performance (calcification’s).On new or difficult tasks higher levels of arousal lead to worse performance (social inhibition) Additive task all group members perform the same task and group performance is the sum of the efforts of the individual members Social Loafing refers to reductions in effort when individuals work collectively in a roof compared to when they work individually Free rider effect the tendency to contribute less to a collective task when one believes that other group members will compensate for one’s lack of effort Sucker effect the group members are not going to be contributing their fair share.