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This lesson summarizes Roger Hock’s 1992 book, Forty Studies that Changed Psychology. The book introduces and analyzes the most important research in the field of psychology.

About the Book

Forty Studies That Changed Psychology: Explorations Into the History of Psychological Research is a secondary source (a report of primary studies) written by Roger R. Hock. The book outlines forty important research studies that have significantly shaped the field of psychology. The book is a really important resource for students in psychology, since it surveys the field and notes important historical developments.

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Chapters One to Five

In the first chapter, Hock outlines various studies that reveal the influence of biology on human behavior.

For instance, he reviews Michael Gazzinaga’s split-brain research, which identified the separate hemispheres of the brain by cutting the corpus callosum, which is the connecting ‘bridge’ between them. He also summarizes a study on the brains of rats in a highly stimulated environment and the development of depth perception, among other studies. In this chapter, Hock argues that ‘biological processes underlie all behavior.’Chapter Two explores the relationship between perception and consciousness. Hock argues that human consciousness, or state of awareness, is significantly influenced by the brain’s perception of and organization of information.

Hock explains how altered states of consciousness, in turn, produce changes in perception. He summaries various studies, which have focused on perceptual abilities in early childhood, sleep, dreams, and hypnosis.Chapter Three explores the impact of learning and conditioning on behavior. The chapter begins with a discussion of Ivan Pavlov’s famous study–‘Conditioned Reflexes’ of dogs salivating for their rewards. In this chapter, Hock presents studies that affirm the significance of conditioning, rather than biology.Chapter Four discusses the relationship between intelligence, cognition, and memory.

Hock summarizes various studies, including H. Gardner’s study on frames of mind, which identifies multiple forms of intelligence. He also summarizes a study by E.C. Tolman on the cognitive ‘maps’ in the brains of rats and humans.Chapter Five explores human development and the nature of love between individuals. This chapter summarizes Jean Piaget’s study on the development of the object concept and the childhood construction of reality.

In this chapter, Hock also discusses research on the development of moral thought and the effects of personal choice and free will.

Chapters Six to Ten

Chapter Six explores the relationship between emotion and motivation. For instance, Hock summarizes a study by W.H.

Masters and V.E. Johnston, which describes human sexual response. He also summarizes P. Ekman and W.V.

Freisen’s study, which identified universal traits in the expression of emotion across cultures.Chapter Seven focuses on studies about personality. Hock summarizes research that has significantly influenced scholarship on the development and nature of personality traits, such as M. Friedman and R. H. Roseman’s study that associates certain blood and cardiovascular patterns with certain personality traits.

Chapter Eight discusses research on psychopathology. Hock summarizes Anna Freud’s research on the ego and the mechanisms of defense, which explains certain human behaviors in terms of how they benefit the self-image. He also discusses a study about the human response to traumatic shock, among other studies.

Chapter Nine surveys research on the practice of psychotherapy. Hock discusses studies that explore the impact of psychotherapy on emotional and mental health and the treatment of neuroses.The final chapter explores research on social psychology.

Hock summarizes research on the pathology of imprisonment, the influence of social pressure, the diffusion of responsibility in public situations, and the nature of obedience.

Lesson Summary

Roger Hock’s Forty Studies That Changed Psychology: Explorations Into the History of Psychological Research is a secondary source (a report of primary sources) published in 1992, which summarizes and analyzes the significance of forty important research studies in the field of psychology. The book is organized into ten chapters on the following topics: biology and human behavior (like Michael Gazziniga’s research on split-brain patients), the relationship between perception and consciousness, the impact of learning and conditioning (like Pavlov’s studies on conditioning dogs), the relationship between intelligence, cognition, and memory, human development and the nature of love, the relationship between emotion and motivation, personality, psychopathology, psychotherapy, and social psychology.

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