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Firstly, startup business owners who encounteredfailure were approached. Each individual small business owner was given aletter of permission to sign. This letter stated the purpose of the interview,and issues relating to confidentiality, privacy and anonymity were explained. Semistructured interviews were used to gather data.

This method extracted the requiredinformation needed in order to explain why Startup businesses are failing. Itwas organized in a manner in which the interviewer can seek both clarificationand elaboration on responses given, and this gives the interviewer morelatitude to probe beyond the answers and thus enter into a dialogue with theinterviewee.” Thus, the researcher can probe further in order to get more informationfrom the interviewees, because neither the interviewer nor the respondents are confinedto any specific questions and responses.The interviews were recorded and observations weremade during the interviews which were noted down. Each individual businessowner was interviewed based on the cluster where he or she belonged. In someinstances the interviews were conducted in their local languages because someof them were not comfortable expressing themselves in English. Each interviewtook about 25 to 30 minutes. Data collection took six weeks.

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3.6 Data analysisEach participant was handed a questionnaire whichhad 90 different questions separated into 9 clusters or sections, each sectionhaving 10 questions that focused on a particular section discussed in chapterII above. When the 30 executive’s submitted their questionnaires, collation wasdone and the percentage of agreement, disagreement or being indifferent abouteach section by all of them was written down. The same process was carried outfor all 9 sections 3.

7 Reliability and validityFor the purpose of the reliability and validity of thedata, the following measures were undertaken:• A pilot study preceded the actual interviews. TheEconet Wireless study served as a sampling for the other members of thepopulation.• The business owners were each given a cover letterexplaining the nature of the research project.• They also were given a follow-up letter in whichthe business owners were assured of the privacy and confidentiality of theinformation they provided as well as guaranteeing their anonymity.• A cluster sample was used because in thepopulation there are survivalists, micro- and small businesses. When one has agroup of heterogeneous respondents or elements with common characteristics theycan be treated as separate clusters.This research boasts of validity and reliability andrecommend for those seeking an insight into this topic or related.In this chapter the methodology and design used forthe study were discussed.

The reasons for choosing these designs were given andthe importance of exploration was outlined. The means and method of datacollection including the development of the tool used were thoroughlydiscussed.The problems encountered in gathering data includedthe type of language respondent’s use, other failed startup businesses respondingnegatively to the study and delays with regard to appointments withrespondents. In addition to this, of the 30 businesses which were selected, 3of them refused to be interviewed.

This affected the results. The refusal to providethe researcher with any information by these small businesses was caused bylack of trust as well as reluctance to disclose the manner in which they runtheir businesses for fear of competition. Even though the researcher explainedthat the information provided would remain confidential and anonymous, one ofthe failed startup business owners interviewed was 100 concern aboutconfidentiality two days after the interview and the researcher had to traveldown to give his personal word to him .  CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS4.1 INTRODUCTIONThis chapter reports on the findings of theinterviews conducted and provides an analysis of the data.  The researcher contacted the interviewees bymail, telephone calls and via the online video chat medium called Skype.

Although all respondents filled the questionnaire, the researcher engaged themin oral conversations to know the original intent of the interviewees and seeif it matches with what was on paper.The questionnaireswere mailed back to the researcher by all 30 entrepreneurs and the datacollated. The questionnaire had a total of 90 questions each. Allowing 10questions on each section. They were required to say YES, NO or remain INDEFERENTabout the questions asked.

The following sections were covered

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