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In the fireflies case the reaction involves the enzyme Lucifer which lights up a lantern-like mechanism under the tip the wings and attached to the end of the body of the firefly. It is presumed that the firefly uses the lantern to attract a mate. The goal in this experiment was to test the effect of adenosine troposphere in lighting the firefly’s lantern in temperature effects, pH effects, and salt effect. Materials and Methods Powdered firefly lanterns were obtained from Carolina Biological. The lights in the room were turned off.

The dropper from the bottle of TAP powder was removed. A pipette was used to add 1 ml of buffer solution to the bottle TAP and the dropper was placed back onto the bottle. The bottle was rolled between the palms of a pair of hands to until the powder was dissolved. The powdered firefly lantern was poured into two Petri dishes in each of the four stations. One was used for the control and the other dish was used for the experiment. To each of the Petri dishes 1 ml of buffer solution was added. At station 1 the control two drops of TAP were added to each Petri dish.

The control Petri dish was left alone and a pipette was used to deliver several drops of acetic acid to the experimental dish. Several drops of sodium hydroxide were added to the experimental dish. Results were observed and recorded. At station 2 the control Petri dish was left alone on the table and the experimental Petri dish was placed in a lab-only refrigerator for 10 minutes. The experimental dish was removed from the cold and a pipette was used to add two drops of TAP solution to each of the Petri dishes. Results were observed and recorded.

At station 3, the control Petri dish was left alone and the experimental Petri dish was heated in a hot water bath for 60 second using a clamp to hold it in place. The experimental Petri dish was removed from the hot water bath. Two drops of TAP solution was added with a pipette to both the control and the experimental Petri dish. Results were recorded. At station 4 a pipette was used to add two drops of TAP to both the experimental and controlled Petri dishes. The pipette was used to deliver several drops of sodium chloride solution to the experimental Petri dish.

Results were observed and recorded. Results In station 1 when the acid was added to the experimental Petri dish the fluorescence of the powdered firefly lantern started to dim and once the base was added the lantern began to brighten up again. The controlled Petri dish remained bright during all four of the experiments. The results are as shown in Table 1. In station 2 after the experimental Petri dish was taken out of the fridge and TAP was added the powdered firefly lantern did glow but at a very dim level.

The results are as shown in Table 1. In station 3 after the experimental Petri dish was taken out of the hot water tat and two drops of TAP were added no fluorescence reaction occurred at all in the powdered firefly lantern and it remained as it was before the TAP was added. The results are as shown in Table 1. In station 4 when the sodium chloride solution was added to the TAP and firefly lantern mix in the experimental Petri dish the powdered firefly lantern began to glow but very dim in color. The results are as shown in Table 1. Table 1.

A scale from +3 to O, O being no glow at all, of how powerful the glow from the experimental and controlled Petri dishes was. Station Control/Experimental Glow Level O- +3 Station 1 PH Control +3 Experimental Acid +1 Experimental Base +2 Station 2 Cold Control +3 Experimental +1 Station 3 Hedonistic +3 Experimental O Station 4 Salt Control +3 Discussion It appears that in all of the stations, when the control Petri dish was left at room temperature it was at its fullest potential glow and either by adding heat, cold, acid or a base, or a salt solution it was not possible to achieve the same full glow.

This could be because fireflies come out in the evening to attract their mate so he sun is already down and so there is no need for a heated temperature. Fireflies are only around in the summer so there is no need for a cold temperature to help achieve this glow. Also there is no acid/base or salt solutions that the firefly needs to attain his glow. In station 1 when the acetic acid was added to the TAP and powdered firefly lantern mix the glow went from a bright +3 glow down to about a +1 glow. The explanation for this might be that when the acid is added the pH of the Lucifer is lowered and thus the color dims.

When the base sodium hydroxide is added o the mixture the color begins to brighten up because the base solution neutralizes the acid and it regains its color back. In station 2 when the TAP is added to the cold Petri dish the powdered firefly lantern has about a +1 glow. The reasoning for this could be that the reaction is going slower because the fact that it is cold and the coldness slow the reaction down, it the kinetic energy is slower than if it had been left out in room temperature like the control Petri dish. In station 3 when the TAP was added to the heated Petri dish the powdered firefly lantern seemed not to glow at all.

This is because proteins denature when they are heated. Once they denature the break down into smaller things and thus are not able to function together as they would if they were not heated and remained at room temperature. In station 4 the sodium chloride solution is added to the TAP and powdered firefly lantern solution and the glow in the Petri dish goes from a glow of +3 to a glow of about +1. The salt changes the ionic environment and thus the so that the charge of the entire mixture becomes somewhat more neutral and the glow of the firefly lantern decreases.

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