False consensus effect refers to the tendency of people to overestimate the level to which other people share their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Learn false consensus effects and how they are related to external factors.
Definition of False Consensus Effect
Suppose you were observing a group of females walking along a path on a college campus.
An attractive male comes along and asks the females for their phone numbers. Maggie, one of the women in the group, responds by telling him ‘No, thank you.’ She proceeds to say that they all have boyfriends and feel like giving out their numbers to strangers would not be appropriate.Lindsay (one of her friends) disagrees that giving her number out is wrong even though she is not single and hands the stranger a piece of paper with her number on it. Shocked, Maggie asks her other friends if they agree with her or Lindsay. Only one other girl in the group agrees with Maggie.
What Maggie has just experienced is called false consensus effect.So what is false consensus effect? Simply put, it is the tendency for individuals to overestimate the level at which other people share their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. False consensus effect is a type of bias in which we think that our own opinions, attitudes, beliefs, etc. are common and appropriate, so that others must also feel the same way. When we have a particular belief, we tend to estimate that belief to be more prevalent than it is by individuals that have an alternative belief.Suppose that you prefer to drink iced tea over water.
If you believed that the preference for those who prefer iced tea over water is higher than what it really is, this would be an example of false consensus effect. Likewise, if a person who preferred water over iced tea believed that everyone he knew preferred water over iced tea also when this is not true, this would be false consensus effect.Examples of false consensus effect include believing that all people think that saving the environment is important because you feel that way, believing that all of your married friends must want to have children, because you believe that the only benefit of marriage is procreation, believing that all of your friends think that beer tastes better than wine because you believe beer is better.
Factors that Influence False Consensus
Suppose your best friend asked you to go to the store to get her some candy, but didn’t tell you what kind to get. How would you choose which candy to buy? Most of us would think of the candy we like and buy it for our friend. After all, you two are very similar in many ways so you should like the same candy. Since you know the deliciousness of your favorite candy, getting her things that you like seems like a better alternative than picking up random candy that you’ve never tasted.
In situations such as these where there is limited information to work with, taking a good guess based off our own values and beliefs seems like a better alternative than making a wild guess. We are more likely to use false consensus when we attribute the way we behave to external factors, which are factors that are related to the situation and not to the individual. This is because external factors are also presumed to affect others.Let’s look at an example of how attributing your beliefs to an external factor can lead to false consensus effect. Suppose that you went to a play and thought that the play was horrid due to the protagonist’s poor acting skills. Here, you attributed your belief that the play was not good to an external factor: the protagonist’s acting skill. Because you incorrectly view the actor’s skill as completely objective, you logically assume that everyone else must also have thought the play was horrid.
This is an example of false consensus effect.Now, let’s say that there is someone else in the audience watching the same play who also finds the play horrid. However, instead of attributing their dislike of the play to some external factor, they attribute it to their high standards and familiarity with the screenwriter of a play. This person would recognize that whether or not the play was horrid is a subjective experience that highly depends on the individual. Therefore, they realize that not everyone will share the same viewpoint and avoid false consensus effect.
It is important to note that even people who attribute the causes of their beliefs to internal factors tend to experience false consensus effect every now and then. False consensus is more prevalent in situations where we believe that the behavior is due to situational factors that are strong, the matter is one that is very important to us, we believe without a doubt that we are correct.
False consensus effect is the overestimation of the level at which other people share our beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. False consensus is more likely when we attribute the causes of our beliefs and behaviors to external factors, since these factors are also presumed to affect others. False consensus is stronger in situations where we believe that the behavior is due to situational factors that are strong, the matter is one that is very important to us, and we believe without a doubt that we are correct.
The following tasks may be completed when you’ve learned the above aspects of the false consensus effect:
- Characterize the false consensus effect
- Distinguish between false consensus and external factors
- Provide examples of false consensus effect