In this paper I will discuss the regulatory requirements and their effect on the design and equipment, Color selection implications and noise issues, type of equipment needed, electronic items needed, examination of budget planning and cost estimates, and description of the role of stakeholders in facility planning and development. Hospitals are among the most regulated of all building types. Like other buildings, they must follow the local and/or state general building codes. However, federal facilities on federal property generally need not comply with state and local codes, but follow federal regulations.
To be licensed by the state, design must comply with the individual state licensing regulations. Many states adopt the FGI Guidelines for Design and Construction of Hospitals and Health Care Facilities (WBDG, 2010). State and local building codes are based on the model International Building Code. Federal agencies are usually in compliance with the IBC except NFPA 101 (Life Safety Code), NFPA 70 (National Electric Code), and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines (ABAAG) or Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) takes precedence (WBDG, 2010).
Since hospitals treat patients who are reimbursed under Medicare, they must also meet federal standards, and to be accredited, they must meet standards of the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). Generally, the federal government and JCAHO refer to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) model fire codes, including Standards for Health Care Facilities (NFPA 99) and the Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) (WBDG, 2010).
The American with Disabilities Act (ADA) applies to all public facilities and greatly the building design with its general and specific accessibility requirements. The Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines (ABAAG) or the Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) apply to federal and federally funded facilities. The technical requirements do not differ greatly from the ADA requirements (WBDG, 2010). Hospital patients are often fearful and confused and these feelings may impede recovery.
Every effort should be made to make the hospital stay as unthreatening, comfortable, and stress-free as possible. The interior designer plays a major role in this effort to create a therapeutic environment. A hospital’s interior design should be based on a comprehensive understanding of the facility’s mission and its patient profile. The characteristics of the patient profile will determine the degree to which the interior design should address aging, loss of visual acuity, other physical and mental disabilities, and abusiveness (WBDG, 2010).
Some important aspects of creating a therapeutic interior are: * Using familiar and culturally relevant materials wherever consistent with sanitation and other functional needs. Using cheerful and varied colors and textures, keeping in mind that some colors are inappropriate and can interfere with provider assessments of patients’ pallor and skin tones, disorient older or impaired patients, or agitate patients and staff, particularly some psychiatric patients (WBDG, 2010).
* Admitting ample natural light wherever feasible and using color-corrected lighting in interior spaces which closely approximates natural daylight * Providing views of the outdoors from every patient bed, and elsewhere wherever possible; photo murals of nature scenes are helpful where outdoor views are not available * Designing a “way-finding” process into every project. Patients, visitors, and staff all need to know where they are, what their destination is, and how to get there and return.
Building elements, color, texture, and pattern should all give cues, as well as artwork and signage (WBDG, 2010). Health care facilities are designed not only to support and facilitate state-of-the-art medicine and technology, patient safety, and quality patient care, but to also embrace the patient, family, and caregivers in a psycho-socially supportive therapeutic environment. The characteristics of the physical environment in which a patient receives care affects patient outcomes, patient satisfaction, patient safety, staff efficiency, staff satisfaction, and organizational outcomes.
The effects can be positive or negative. For a hospital to operate effectively the equipment is dependent upon the services provided. Some types of medical equipment are Anesthesia Machines, Vital Signs Monitors, Central Stations, Surgical Tables, Respiratory Ventilators, Electrosurgical Units, Surgical Lights, Defibrillators, Surgical Microscopes, Medical Warmers, Medical Stretchers, Infant Care, Infusion Pumps, Endoscopy Equipment, and Medical Gas Equipment just to name a few. Designing and examining a budget can be very challenging.
If a budget is not written properly, the hospital may not be able to deliver medical services. Some ways to effectively manage a budget is to determine the hospital revenue, figure out expenses, know the cost of personnel etc. Early in the process the owner and key members of the hospital staff meet with the designers to give input on the design of the facility. The designer’s acts on behalf of the patients, volunteers and suppliers within the organization. References Carr, Robert (December 2010). “ Hospital. ” Retrieved on January 16, 2011 from http://www. wbdg. org.