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This was determined by observing a larger orientation of bubbles, the visual indicator of hydrogen peroxide being broken down into a non-toxic form of hydrogen and water. This study allowed us to observe first hand catalane can perform further when the surface area is larger. Introduction A majority of individuals do not realize how important enzymes, a type of protein, are for life to exist. Organisms experience a continuum of chemical reactions taking place within their cells and these reactions wouldn’t happen without the presence of enzymes.

Since enzymes are so important to life we should understand what affects their productivity to include: temperature, pH and the concentration of reactants. The purpose of this study is to test how the enzymes react when there is a larger surface area; hence an increase in the concentration of reactants. In this experiment we use the enzyme catalane, which assists in the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.

Hydrogen peroxide is a well-known chemical used in a variety of ways such as household cleaning, wound management and removing color from a variety of items. Hydrogen reside is a product of living cell reactions and is considered deadly and if not disposed of properly a cell killer. Although it sounds like doom and gloom this is where the catalane steps in, an enzyme to breakdown the hydrogen peroxide into the less toxic substances of hydrogen and water. Hypothesis If the surface area is increased than the enzyme catalane will create more bubbles.

Materials 1 CM cube solid piece of uncooked fish 1 CM cube piece of uncooked fish chopped up, same type of fish as the solid piece listed above 1 Pipette 1 Bottle of Hydrogen Peroxide plastic Petri dishes 1 very dull metal utensil to chop up uncooked fish Methods A 1 CM cube piece of raw fish, type unknown, was placed into a brand new, clean, plastic Petri dish as the control for the experiment. A second 1 CM cube piece of raw fish, type unknown, was placed on a Petri dish and chopped up using a very dull metal utensil.

The resultant chopped fish surface area increased by 50% when compared to the whole piece of fish. Neither Petri dish was labeled as it was evident which piece of fish was which. An unknown quantity of hydrogen reside solution was piped over the two pieces of fish at the same time. A fine layer of hydrogen peroxide solution was evident on the top of both pieces and resulted in a thin layer that expanded to the outer edges of both pieces of meat. There was no established time followed for when the observations were made.

Observations for the experiment were recorded using a 0 to 5 scale shown below: O = No bubbles present on surface of fish 1 = 20% of the exposed fish surface area covered by bubbles 2 = 40% of the exposed fish surface area covered by bubbles = 60% of the exposed surface area covered by bubbles 4 = of the exposed fish surface area covered by bubbles 5= 100% of the exposed fish surface area covered by bubbles. Results The 1 CM cube solid piece of uncooked fish resulted in a 3 on our scale, 60% of the fish surface was covered with bubbles.

The 1 CM cube chopped up piece of uncooked fish resulted in a 5 on our scale, 100% of the fish surface area was covered by bubbles. The increased surface area allows more of the catalane to be revealed to the hydrogen peroxide resulting in more bubbles. The ground fish beveled more cell exposure causing the hydrogen peroxide to be broken down more than the solid piece of fish. The whole piece of fish was much more intact and less exposed than the ground up fish resulting in a more compact reaction.

The observations are broken down in the following table. Test Item Scale Observation 1 CM Piece of Solid Fish, Unknown Type 3 Bubbles around the exterior piece of fish, white portions of fish became brighter. 1 CM Chopped of Piece of Fish, Unknown Type 5 The hydrogen peroxide resulted in a lowercasing on all parts of the fish than impaired to the solid piece offish. The plethora of bubbles created a somewhat fluffy appearance. Discussion The hypothesis was accepted.

This experiment confirmed, as the surface area of the fish gets larger, the reaction rate would become more noticeable. Since the surface area expanded this allows more hydrogen peroxide to react with the exposed tissue thus speeding up the reaction of the catalane breaking up the hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and water. Possible sources of error include: the type of fish used, contaminants on the dull cutting utensil used to chop the sis, no exact length of time recorded for observations, and different/unknown amounts of hydrogen peroxide used in both Petri dishes.

In addition to the previously listed sources of error, the rating scale also has to be mentioned. It became evident after the scale was determined and the experiment started, it would be hard to declare with confidence, the percentage of bubbles covering the pieces of fish. Conclusion The study confirmed our hypothesis and demonstrated if the surface area increased the catalane enzyme reaction would result in more bubbles.

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