The first article that has been chosen for the purpose of this project is the article by Thomas M. Skovholt and David A Rivers. The article is titled ‘Research in Helping Professions’ and was published in 2006. The helping professionals that exist nowadays take the form of nursing, human services, human development, counseling and social work. The formal professionals whose work can be categorized under the umbrella of helping professions are the human resource managers in business as well as psychiatrists.The reason for this is the human resource managers in an organization are basically present to help, guide and aid the human resource of the company while striving to enable them to be able to achieve their own as well as the strategic objectives of the company. The psychiatric profession deals with the counseling of people for various reasons as well as mental instabilities.
The main concept however which is put forward by in the article ‘Research in Helping Professions’ is that it is important for people in such professions to undertake research as well.The importance of research in helping professions and those that deal with monitoring, evaluating and studying human behavior is critical in n nature as it provides for future growth and development in the field and also enables the professionals to better understand their clients. This makes them better able to provide their clients with the best possible services and training regarding their specific issues.
Nowadays the helping professions are gaining importance a people become more aware of the society around them and want to play a role and improving it.They seek professions such as this in order to aid people who require assistance and help. Overview of Article As mentioned earlier the article’s basic premise is regarding the importance of research in helping professions. The article is able to provide that by enacting research, professionals and people involved in helping professions would be much better able to provide high quality service to their patients and clients.
The article initially established the role of the students and the helpers or the professionals in the field of helping.They are described as being highly motivated in terms of practicing the professions but search tends to put them off as they deem high monotonous, confusing, a complex and a very difficult task. Aside form this other constraints have also been identified that hinder the progress of helping professionals in the aspect of research. Secondly the article establishes a relationship between the research and the professionals in the helping profession. The research is able to provide the professionals with new leads on their specializations and can open avenues for them where they have been stuck and hindered by lack of information.However the process of conducting and analyzing the research is a daunting task for them. The article then progresses to discuss the process regarding the research process. It provides various methods through which research can be performed and be beneficial to the professionals in the helping profession.
The article then moves on to provide the different types of research, the methodologies that can be applied, and the design the can be selected for research in the field of helping. An important aspect that is considered in the article and is very relevant to the profession of helping is culture and cultural associations.This is an important aspect to comprehend for helper as they have to interact and communicate with their clients on a very personal and intimate level. This requires the helping professionals to be able to understand the problems and issues that are being faced by the clients and also comprehend the cultural issues that are creating, aggravating or prompting these problems. Conclusively the article also depicts how research can be employed and which specific fields in helping require research on an urgent basis. Strengths & Limitations from Research PerspectiveThe strength of this article is that it provides information regarding research in helping profession form all points of view.
The article provides as to why the students and the professionals are hesitant in taking on research in the felid of helping. The article also provides as to what problems the field of helping professions is facing due to the lack of availability of information. It provides the specific methodologies, and types of research that can be conducted and what research designs are appropriate for this field. Moreover a comprehensive procedural outline is provided with in-depth information.The article also justifies its theories and propositions by citing previous work under taken regarding research in helping profession.
The limitation of the article is that in it the authors have not conducted any practical research or collected any primary data on the aspect of research being conducted in the field of helping and social development. This limits that article in terms of justification of the claims and the arguments that are put forward by the authors. Moreover this article is very specific to the helping [profession.While this is not a limitation of the article, it does put a constraint on the aspect of importance of research. Main Findings As the article does not actually conduct practical research about helping professionals and the importance of research in it, there exist no specific findings. Howsoever the authors have supported the material in the article through the literature review which is based on the importance of research, the requirements of the helping profession regarding research and the best methodologies of research available to the professionals in helping professions.
The article was able to identify that students as well as professional helpers are hesitant when comes to conducting research or applying it to their practice. The reason for this has been established by the authors that the statistical analysis involved in analyzing the data, the data collection procedure and the in-depth comparison tends to confuse and daunt the people involved in the helping field. As a result due to lack of knowledge they do not undertake practical research, or rather any form of research.
Moreover as they don’t understand the basis of the research that has already been conducted and the proposition that they provide, they are guarded when it comes to consuming or using this research in their practical work as well. The article also has been able to establish that research, despite the lack of undertaking regarding it, is of crucial importance in the field of helping and related professions. The reason for this is that all that has been gained and discovered about the field of helping came about from the research that was conducted regarding human behavior and their responses in different situations.The article depicts that all that is learned about the kills of helping and the strategies that can be employed by the professionals has been derived from research regarding helping and human behavior. One of the main propositions that is set forward by the authors in the article is that students as well as helping professionals should actively consume research regarding their profession and specialization, and where possible should also be indulged in conducting research. The reason that is provided for this is that by employing research the professionals will be able to be more efficient in their practical work.
Arguments of the Article The main arguments that are present in the article pertain to importance of research and the different aspects of research that can be applied to helping professions. The article states that while people associated and involved with helping professions tend to hesitant in conducting or utilizing research. This view is supported by Garry R. Walz a notable professional in counseling. “Steady advocacy has created a contradiction among the vast majority of professional counselors whose actual use of research remains limited.Their lament that it is widely acknowledged that a relatively small proportion of helping professionals routinely read research and an even smaller proportion ever, much less routinely, engage in research [reveals] the paradox of widespread endorsement .
. . with little use of, or engagement in, research in actual practice” (Schmidt, 1998) However the article goes on to provide that research is essentially very similar to counseling and attending a client as it involves identifying the problem, collecting information, analyzing the information, forming linkages, and determining the best possible solution form alternatives.As a result research actually is not as much of a complex task for helping professionals as it is considered to be.
Aside from this as mentioned earlier the article provides the various methodologies, types and designs of research that can be undertaken by helping professionals in order to further facilitate their practice. The issue regarding comprehension and establishment of cultural linkages and associations in the clients was also raised. “Community-based research raises ethical issues not normally encountered in research conducted in academic settings.In particular, conventional risk-benefits assessments frequently fail to recognize harms that can occur in socially identifiable populations as a result of research participation. ” (‘Ethical Considerations in Research with Socially Identifiable Populations’, 2004) The authors were of similar view as well and established that the researchers should analyze the data available and conduct their research without cultural biases despite their association or lack of association with the culture of the client or the prospective respondents. This makes the search much more credible.
Lastly the article proposed to the audience, especially those in the felid of helping that they should not just employ the research conducted by others, but should also initiate and conduct their own research as it increased the quality of service helping professionals are able to provide their customers an increases the skills and knowledge set for them as well. Introduction Article 2 The second article that is selected for the purpose of review as part of this project is by Seonghee, Woods, & Mayer titled ‘Examining the Impact of Human Resources Management on Organizational Performance’.It relates to the various measurements of organizational performance and how human resource management can be employed to increase the productivity and the performance of the people in the organization. The concept of human resource management pertain the aspect of managing the human based resource in the organization. This takes the form of recruiting, staffing, monitoring, evaluating, payroll and motivating the employees to improve and maintain their high performance levels in the long run.
However in most cases, people render the Human Resource Management activity as a function of the business which relates to the staffing of employees and the retirement or termination of employees only. The concept of human resource management takes the form of a subsidiary activity in companies. However the research provides that Human resource management is an essential business activity that is to be conducted by the organization in order to ensure long term productivity and high level of growth for the company in the relevant market.
The human resource management and the performance of the organization re directly related to each other.This is because of the fact that productivity is hampered by the lack of motivation and lack of interest of the employees in their work and the operation of the business. However by employing human resource management activities like monitoring evaluation, counseling, proving career advice to the employees as well as training and developing the human resource in the company the organization can rectify the problem of job satisfaction and de-motivation of the employees whereby increasing their productivity and therefore the performance of the organization in them market. Overview of ArticleThe researchers established that the purpose of the research conducted was to be able to develop a model which measures the direct effects of the human resource activities, policies and practices three different measures of organization performance. The important part however was to be able to develop a model which was reliable and self sufficient in nature in terms of providing evident and justifying it. The three organizational performance measurements that have been analyzed in the research pertain to the impact that the application of human resource activities and practices has on them.These measurements included the annual turnover rates based on the human resource outcomes, the labor productivity in terms of the organizational outcomes and the growth in the sales that exists in a particular period of time specific to a financial year. The last measurement indicated the financial impact of the human resource activity on the sales and revenue of the organization.
The three measurement challenges that were highlighted by various employees of organizations were taken into account.These measurement challenges included data collection which is done separately for managerial employees and for non managerial employees and the identification, establishment and testing of the relationship which exists between the three organizational performance measures that have been taken as the focal subject of the research. Other issues that were uncovered by the research pertained to issues relating to which methodology of analysis should be employed in order to determine the impact of human resource activities on the organization and how to evaluate the effectiveness of these methodologies.For the purpose of this study however the researchers made use of the structural equation modeling in order to examine the effects of specific human resource practices.
The results that were apparent from the study depicted that the specific Human resource management activities that directly impacted the performance of the organization pertained to activities of training and development of the employees, the performance reward management which imposed of compensation and, bonuses and other benefits, as well as the employee relations in the company. Strengths & Limitations from Research PerspectiveOne of the strengths of the study pertains to the fact that the study bases its research on previous studies. The problems that were identified in the previous studies under taken by other researches established the human resource management activities do have a positive effect on the performance of the organization, however they were unable to identify or form an onion as to which specific organizational performance measures cold depict the positive impact of specific human resource activities. This specific research however tends to focus on this discrepancy raised by the previous researches, making it strength for the research.Aside from this study established that in order to effectively measure productivity increase and the resultant increase in the performance of the organization, the management and employees in the company will have to be evaluated and monitored according to their management status. Moreover the research also was able to realize that the main issue that has to be considered is how to measure the effectiveness, instead of what to measure the effectiveness. This insight gained from the analyses of existing articles and studies conducted on this topic enabled the researchers to narrow down the scope for analysis in the study.
AS a result the study is more specific about the aspects of human resource management activities and the organizational measurement indicators that were to be observed for interrelation and trend analysis of the effects of human resource practices employed by the company. Aside from this the study also made use of purification of the data available on order to get rid of any corrupted or redundant data. The limitations of the study however pertain to the fact that this study is too specific in nature. It is possible for more elements to exist in other organization, as compared to the organizations that were taken into account in this study.Aside from this the study was limited to the research of the organizations in the hospitality industry. In this industry the sales function is of significant importance.
Main Findings The main finding of the article ‘Examining the Impact of Human Resources Management on Organizational Performance’ pertain to the fact that the performance of the company is directly related to the activities that are conducted by the human resource function of the organization. The study initially established a valid measurement model which was able to cover the human resource management activities pertaining six functions of human resource management.These functions specifically included the staffing functions, the development and training of the employees function, the function for performance appraisal, the function of rewarding and compensation based on the performance appraisal and the current state of employee relations with the company. Aside from this the study also took the internal communication system in place at the hospitability based organization as a tool of human resource management and therefore included it as on of the six functions of the human resource management in the organization.The result that was depicted by this model was that a positive relation exists between the human resource management function and the performance of the business as indication by the operation measures.
However the study as states above conducted an in-depth and interrelation analysis of the selected function of human resource management as well as in order to determine which aspects of human resource management are able to influence and drive the performance of the enterprise as a whole.The results for this depicted that by employing the human resource management activities pertaining to monitoring, training and motivating people in order to make them more satisfied at their job, the organization is able to lower the turnover of its employees. As a result the lower turnover or the decreased turnover which is caused by the human resource management activities tends to increase the productivity of the employees in the organization, and therefore increases the productivity of the enterprise as a whole.The increase in productivity leads to more generation of business activity and monetary retuned on investment.
Specifically, the labor productivity increased and prompted the growth the sales of the organization. However a trend was identified that the response of the managers to the human resource management activities is considerably different that the response of non managers pertaining to the profitability of the company.Conclusively “the model fit statistics indicated that the hypothesized model achieved acceptable fit in both groups. The findings indicated that the model generally fits the data for each employee group; however, since some paths are not significant in a certain group, it implies that HRM constructs implemented FOR THE two employee groups have different impacts on organizational performance. ” (Seonghee, Woods, & Mayer, 2005) Arguments of the ArticleThe arguments that were presented by the study conducted by Seonghee, Woods, & Mayer in 2005 pertaining to the impact of human resource management function and its practices on the performance measures of the organization clearly depicted that a positive relationship existed between the function of the human resource management and the performance of the organization Another argument that was provided by the study was that previously research has taken place on the topic as to whether the performance and operation measures that were being analyzed in this study had been observed for interrelation in previously researcher projects.
However no conclusive evidence was made available pertaining to whether one measure influences of is directly related to the other measure making the interrelation between the measures a vague concept. As a result this study focused on identifying the interrelationship between the functions of human resource itself. The result that came about due this research depicted all the functions of human resource management increased labor productivity which in turn increased the business activity and the performance of the organization.Moreover the costs of the business pertaining to human resource were also controlled by the employment of human resource management which decreased the overall costs faced by the organization as well. Lastly the most diverse argument that was put forward by the study was that the impact of each of the different activities undertaken as part of this study did not impact the performance of the organization in a uniform manner.
Comparative Evaluation in Light of Research Approaches The article by Thomas M. Skovholt and David A Rivers titled ‘Research in Helping Professions’ basically makes use of the literature review in order to support and provide justification for the points that are raised in the article. No actual practical research or study is conducted. The authors instead conducted literature review of the previous texts, researches, studies and articles that have been written on the topic and provide a comprehensive report of why research is important in the flail of helping for r professionals.
The article however is systematic in nature, and builds up on the issue of lack of research pertaining to helping profession.It then cites form various professionals in the field of helping regarding why research is important and how best it should be conducted. The study conducted by Seonghee, Woods, & Mayer pertaining titled ‘Examining the Impact of Human Resources Management on Organizational Performance’ employed literature review of secondary data available and on the pervious research conducted pertaining to this issue as well as the collection of primary data and consequent statistical analysis in order to determine the relationships.
The data collection technique that was employed was to devise a multiple choice based questionnaire which as filled by the respondents, i. e. the staff and employees of the organizations. The sector of the organizations pertained to the hospitality industry. The questionnaire was set in such a way that the independent variables which were the human resource functions were put on a bipolar 6 point scale. The dependent variable was the organizational performance which as mentioned earlier was determined according to the three measurements for annual turnover rates, labor productivity and sales growth.Aside from this the data that was collected was subjected to a chi-square analysis in order to determine any prevalent relationship or linkages between the variables.
The article on the aspect of human resource management and its effects on the performance of the company used an empirical technique as well as literature review of previous material available to build support for the theory that was established and proposed by the article while the article regarding helping professions only made use of literature review.References“Ethical Considerations in Research with Socially Identifiable Populations”, Pediatrics, 2004, Vol. 113 No. 1, pp. 148-151, accessed November 25, 2007 from http://pediatrics. aappublications. org/cgi/content/full/113/1/148 “Human Resources Conference Paper Abstracts”, Academy of Management Proceedings, 2005, p1-55, 55p http://web.
ebscohost. com/bsi/detail? vid=1&hid=106&sid=fc4a2ff5-68e9-466d-bd07-4616c7c156c7%40sessionmgr108 “Organization & Management Theory Conference Paper Abstracts”, Academy of Management Proceedings, 2005, p1-92, 92p http://web. ebscohost.com/bsi/detail? vid=1&hid=106&sid=167687de-fbba-486d-a31f-b5c36d365117%40sessionmgr102 Bradley, K. , Human Resource Management: People and Performance, 2002, Dartmouth Bryman, A. , Social Research Methods, 2004, Oxford: Oxford University Press Becker, B. , Gerhart, B. , “The impact of human resource management on organizational performance: Progress and prospects”, Academy of Management Journal, 1996, Vol.
39 Issue 4, p779, 23p, 3 charts, 1 graph http://web. ebscohost. com/bsi/detail? vid=1&hid=106&sid=228b4495-0481-4c1e-a2dc-a6ff2cd87938%40sessionmgr104Burlingame, M. , “Tools for Linking Research and Practice in the Helping Professions: Research Abstract Worksheets and Personal Reviews of the Literature”, 1994, accessed November 25, 2007 from http://www.
eric. ed. gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini. jsp? _nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED379733&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED379733 Daley, D. M.
, Strategic Human Resource Management: People and Performance Management, 2001, Prentice Hall Delantey, J. T, Huselid, M. A.
, “The impact of human resource management practices on perceptions of organizational performance”, Academy of Management Journal, 1996, Vol. 39 Issue 4, p949, 21p, 4 charts http://web. ebscohost. com/bsi/detail? vid=1&hid=105&sid=9e62ca58-7048-44c7-8001-1365beb3bf3d%40sessionmgr109 Green, K. W.
, Wu, C. , Whitten, D. , Medlin, B. , “The impact of strategic human resource management on firm performance and HR professional’ work attitude and work performance”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2006, Vol. 17 Issue 4, p559-579, 21p http://web.ebscohost. com/bsi/pdf? vid=2;hid=106;sid=9cde7352-5461-47b6-9a1c-a202522d7774%40sessionmgr103 Schmidt, J. , “Perspectives and Projections in Counseling Research: An Interview with Garry R.
Walz”, Journal of Counseling ; Development, 1998, Vol. 76 Issue 4, p483, 7p, accessed November 25, 2007 from http://web. ebscohost. com/bsi/detail? vid=1;hid=103;sid=b20ef98b-9b47-4301-b6a6-e14966776a42%40sessionmgr109 Seonghee C. , Woods, R. H. , Mayer, K.
J. , “Examining the Impact of Human Resources Management on Organizational Performance”, Academy of Management Proceedings 2005.pA1-A6, 6p, 2 charts, accessed November 25, 2007 from http://web. ebscohost. com/bsi/pdf? vid=2;hid=106;sid=9cde7352-5461-47b6-9a1c-a202522d7774%40sessionmgr103 Skovholt, T. M. , Rivers, D.
A. , “Research in Helping Professions”, Counseling and Human Development, 2006, Vol. 38, No. 7, p1 Sonn, C. , Bishop, B. , Drew, N., “Sense of community: issues and considerations from a cross-cultural perspective”, Community, Work ; Family, 1999, Vol.
2 Issue 2, p205-218, 14p, accessed November 25, 2007 from http://web. ebscohost. com/bsi/detail? vid=1;hid=104;sid=db53d60f-9587-4ead-801f-e005314e9267%40sessionmgr108Valentine, F.
, “The future of education”, Nursing Management – UK, 2004, Vol. 11 Issue 2, p18-22, 5p, accessed November 25, 2007 from http://web. ebscohost. com/bsi/detail? vid=1;hid=3;sid=866ed9a9-8bb2-432b-ac18-27a211fc5ee7%40sessionmgr7 Ulrich, D. , Geller, A.
, DeSouza, G. , “A Strategy, Structure, Human Resource Database: OASIS”, Human Resource Management, 1984, Vol. 23 Issue 1, p77-90, 14p, accessed November 25, 2007 from http://web.
ebscohost. com/bsi/detail? vid=1;hid=106;sid=f5e791c4-d568-4d6a-97c7-65d49b7b93a7%40sessionmgr108