Ethical Politic of Dutch Goverment (Hindia Belanda) during occuped Indonesia was changedin early Indonesian social movement. Education, irigation and transmigrationare the main objectives of Dutch policy.
Until Dutch goverment didn’t implemented as well, it was unwilling inimpelementation for Hindia Belanda citizen, finally, it makes disappointed andindignant. Vorstenlanden (Yogyakarta & Surakarta), especially inMangkunegaran has autonom region toorganize education, Dutch government policies was prohibited or makeregulations to limit education, and the consequently only descandants andnobles family was able to get education, because of this condition theiliteracy rate is quate high in Mangkunegaran region.Oneperson who knows bad situation is his Majesty Sri Mangkunegoro VII,Mangkunegoro was quite phenomenal in Java History, he was the first iniatiorprogram who implemented educationprogram on his own region. Mangkunegaran is special region in Central of Java, lead by HisMajesty Mangkunegoro VII. Sri Mangkunegoro VII was inspired the educationprogram from ethical politic Dutch government. The main objective of his programare to decreased iliteracy, improve social and economic as well.
He whose birthname was Raden Mas Soerjo Soeparto was born on 12th 1885. His father passedaway in 1896, exactly when R.M. Soerjo Soeparto turned 11th.
His Majesty SriMangkunegoro VII is modern ruler. He managed to improve the welfare ofMangkunegaran region area through the plantation business (onderneming), especially sugar commodities, and finally the sugarcommodities was essentials in financing illiteracy program. HisMajesty Sri Mangkunegoro VII formed a working committeeto implement iliteracy eradication program, program wasstarted on 15, August, 1939, launched by His Majesty Mangkunegara VII, the first program were takesplace around Mangkunegaran palace and Wonogiri region, the implementation ofIliteracy Eradication was under government Mangkunegoro directly, and allprogram founded by Mangkunegoro itself, during the first program implemented, thecourse around the Mangkunegaran palace was initially followed by 25 students, inWonogiri region was 100 students, and mostly participants are men, woman duringthe colonial period were rarelyeducated, becasue only second class group under he man class, the woman position was considered as unequal to the man position, In the term ofeducation, woman in Mangkunegaran region only got education from informal or family environment, during colonialperiod woman were only educated and taught how to become mother and wife whowas submitted to husband’s desire. Thecourse of writing and reading are conducted at night, in the third year (1942) ofprogram followed by 1500 students, the method used in this program is by spelling, and writing intensively. Since program wasconducted citizen were supporting and participate to succesfully. Illiteracyeradication program was very prestigious program, because the program was iniatedby Mangkunegoro VII itself, program was evaluated every month, Mangkunegoro VII always evaluates theprogram to find out the results and change the method if necessary. Mangkunegoro VII was concerned his peopleto improve social and economic through education, after the programed wasaccomplished in 1944 Mangkunegoro VII has built five hundred village schools,the pogram illiteracy eradication that initiative from Mangkunegoro VII wasinspired to other region, and developed in several other areas, finally, this programbrings social and economic change to Mangkunegaran society.Considering result of historyresearch, it can be concluded that: in colonial times, the education for Indonesian people notconsidered as important, citizen was considered as a subordinate class havingno role in some area.
Indonesian citizen incolonial time was only third class group under the European and Chinnesepeople. Mangkunegoro VII concerned education.