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The major conclusion was that catalane reacts faster in warm temperatures that are neither freezing nor boiling, catalane reforms well in lower concentrations than the substrate, and catalane prefers neutral pH levels around 7. Introduction Enzymes are proteins that catalyst metabolic reactions vital for the survival and functioning of cells Without enzymes, metabolic processes would occur at unfeasible rates. Catalane is a naturally occurring enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen; it is essential to cellular respiration.

I asked if enzyme activity was affected when exposed to different conditions, such as temperature, substrate concentration, and pH levels. My first hypothesis is hat higher temperatures amplify actualization, although too high of a temperature denatures enzymes. My second hypothesis is that smaller concentrations of enzyme in the enzyme to substrate concentration ratios produce higher reactions. The last hypothesis is that enzyme reactions work best at a neutral PH.

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I observed and recorded the effect of these conditions on catalane. The enzyme catalane is important because it handles the decomposition of approximately half of generated H2O in living organisms [2]. It is important for biologists to understand catalane because all cells produce hydrogen peroxide, ND its the job of catalane to break it down. This research will help increase the knowledge of enzyme activity in complex environments, and under what conditions the enzyme catalane will perform best.

Materials and Methods The materials used in this experiment included 4 test tubes (5 for pH), catalane, hydrogen peroxide, an ice water bath, a warm water bath, a boiling water bath, thermometer, test tube rack, a wax pencil, a metric ruler, a timing device, and pH solutions at 1, 4, 7, 10 and 13. Three different experiments were tested in this lab; temperature, substrate concentration and PH. In the temperature experiment, I filled all 4 test tubes with 3 centimeters of hydrogen peroxide and 2 centimeters of catalane, and then labeled them 1) Room Temperature(ICC), 2) Ice(ICC), 3) Body Temperature(ICC), and 4) Boiling(ICC).

The positive control of this experiment was the test tube kept in room temperature, and the negative control was the test tube placed in the ice. The independent variables of this experiment were time and temperature, and the dependent variable was the amount of reaction that occurred. Each test tube was left at the designated temperature for two minutes, and then afterwards ere tested every ten seconds for a minute. My technique included swirling the test tube 3 times each after every ten seconds, and then I would record the bubble height in centimeters.

In the Substrate concentration experiment, I filled the test tubes with different enzyme to hydrogen peroxide concentrations, which were measured in centimeters. Next, I labeled the test tubes accordingly; 1) I(CM):4(CM), 2) 2:3, 3) 3:2, and 4) 4:1. The positive control of the experiment was the test tube with the 1 :4 ratio of enzyme to substrate concentration, and the negative control was the :1 ratio of enzyme to substrate concentration. The independent variables were time and the ratio of enzyme to substrate concentration and the dependent variable was the amount of reaction that occurred.

Each test tube was left at room temperature and then tested every ten seconds for a minute. The technique used was the same as experiment one. In the pH experiment, I filled all 5 of the beakers with 2 centimeters of Catalane and 3 centimeters of hydrogen peroxide. Afterwards, labeled the beakers 1) pH 13, 2) pH 10, 3) pH 7, 4) pH 4, and 5) pH 1, and then added the pH solutions accordingly. The positive control was the pH 4 test tube, and the negative control was the pH 13 test tube. The independent variables were time and pH levels, and was left at room temperature for one minute and then tested every five seconds for thirty seconds.

The technique used was also the same as the first experiment. Results Figure R. I In figure R. I, the test tube stored at body temperature reacted the fastest, and the test tube that was boiled had no reaction, because the enzyme was denatured. This supports my hypothesis that higher temperatures amplify utilization, although too high of a temperature denatures enzymes. Figure R. 2 In figure R. 2, the two highest reactions were the 1 to 4 ratio and the 2 to 3 ratio, this is because the amount of catalane added to the substrate was enough to cover the reaction.

The lowest reaction was the 4 to 1 ratio, this is because the 3 to 2 and 4 to 1 ratios, too much catalane was added. The catalane broke down all the hydrogen peroxide and then had a surplus after the reaction occurred. This supports my hypothesis that smaller concentrations of enzyme in the enzyme to abstract concentration ratios produce higher reactions. Figure R. 3 and R. 4 Figure R. 3 contains the recorded data of the effect of pH on enzyme reactions. Figure R. 4 is the graph of the recorded data; it shows that the most reaction occurred at a pH of 7, this is because catalane works optimally at that PH.

The least reaction occurred at a pH of 13 because it is too basic for catalane, and it works independently from basic pH levels. This supports my hypothesis that enzyme reactions work best at a neutral pH of 7. Discussion Principles, Relationships, and Generalizations The principles of this experiment were that 1) higher temperatures amplify actualization, although too high of a temperature denatures enzymes, 2) smaller produce higher reactions, and 3) enzyme reactions work best at a neutral PH. The correlation between these three principles is that they all speed up the process of enzyme activity.

The basic generalization made is that enzymes are extremely efficient. Enzymes are biological catalysts that can speed up, and control, chemical reactions that would otherwise virtually never occur at normal body temperature. Thousands of chemical reactions are occurring in the human body very moment of life, and each of these reactions is controlled by a particular enzyme [3]. Comparing Results Considering my experiments and data, my end result was the exact criterion I originally expected. The results assembled clearly supported all three of my hypotheses.

Compared to the Catalane Lab, conducted by Gene Nelson[4], the results are reflected almost exactly. The same exact procedures and materials were used, but the dependent variables were measured in different concentrations. The general results matched my results. The Big Picture The significance of my work is to demonstrate efficiency of catalane. Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic byproduct of metabolism that can destroy cells if it is not removed. It adds understanding to the success of cellular respiration and how the hydrogen peroxide is decomposed.

Without catalane, cells would commit suicide due to the high concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the cells; also it would create lesser amounts of oxygen and water in metabolic reactions because catalane handles the decomposition of approximately half of generated hydrogen peroxide in living organisms. This would also halt the metabolic processes inside the cell. Suggestions for future work would be to test how the enzyme catalane is able to function in extremities and anglophiles, because of their extreme conditions.

This research should take a professional and informational stance, such as helping the general public, as well as other scientists comprehend how bacteria are able to survive in their complex environments. Conclusion Overall, my hypotheses were supported by my results. This means that catalane reacts faster in warm temperatures that are neither freezing nor boiling. This conclusion also means that catalane performs well in lower concentrations than he substrate. Lastly, it also concludes that catalane prefers neutral pH levels around 7.

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