However the Induced Fit states that the enzyme has a specific active site shape and the substrate has a complimentary shape. The enzyme slightly adjusts the shape of its active site and moulds around the substrate. This is the accepted theory. The equation is: enzyme + substrate enzyme-substrate complex enzyme + product. Enzyme assays measure the loss of the substrate or the formation of product. Phosphates are found in the soluble and Allyson fractions of cells. An enzyme assay can be classified by the pH at their maximum activity, acid and alkaline phosphates which includes 4-nutritional phosphate.
The 4-nutritional phosphate is colorless, whereas the product enthroning is yellow in color after hydrolysis. Phosphates are characterized by their ability to hydrolysis a phosphate group from the phosphate ester, producing an alcohol and phosphoric acid. The enzyme being studied is alkaline phosphate; this is a widely distributed enzyme that can hydrolysis a variety of phosphate esters. There are many factors that can affect enzyme assay such as incubation period of the enzyme and substrate under appropriate conditions.
This could be due to the fact there is less abstract for the enzyme to bind to as its concentration is lower so all active sites have been used up by other substrate molecules. In the boiled condition the enzyme activity reduced as the optimum temperature for this enzyme had surpassed, therefore, denaturing the enzyme and altering its active site shape. Thus very little substrate could be reacted forming less product which is the nitrogen giving the color to be detected by the calorimeter. From graphs AAA and AAA an anomaly is identified this could be due to human error as this point is not as close to the curve as it should be.
In experiment 2, for the 6th test tube the results are quite accurate as adding sodium carbonate to the test tube first stops almost all the reactions occurring with the enzyme, which it did. The calorimeter on this experiment was not working correctly shown by the very low values of absorbency for experiment 1, the calorimeter was changed in experiment 2 due to this factor but from the graphs AAA and AAA the mol of 4-nitrogen produced cannot be calculated. This concludes the calorimeter was faulty, so most the results for experiment 2 cannot be deduced from the graph.
To get the conversion factor for the result table: = number of moles= concentration= total volume This formula was rearranged to make concentration the subject, so that the concentration could be calculated. Two equations were then made equal to each other so that the value for the volume of 4-nitrogen could be calculated. = concentration of 4-nitrogen = volume of 4-nitrogen The volume of 4-nitrogen is unknown so is replaced by x and other calculated values are added. The x is made the subject so a value for the volume of 4-nitrogen is calculated.
The volume of the water could also be calculated by knowing these numbers then. Errors may have occurred in this experimental procedure due to the pipette not being used correctly. The bottom of the pipette may have been touching the beaker so an accurate measurement may not have been taken, so extra care whilst petting should have been considered. Also, to improve the results the vortex time should have been the same for all the different test tube to enable a fair test. Also, human error could have been avoided when moving substances from one test tube into another. The accuracy of the results could be improved with better equipment.
This could be a more expensive calorimeter which would give a more accurate absorbency recording. Conclusion Enzymes are affected by many factors. This could include PH which has to be of a certain range and if it is at its optimum pH the enzyme will work at its fastest rate. Another factor is temperature, in this experiment the test tubes were put in a water bath for a certain period of time if not carefully checked for the temperature of the water once the enzymes were added they could have en denatured due to the increasing temperature, or, become inactive as the temperature was too low for enzymes to work in.