How the Sues environmental policy generates business opportunities for EX. impasse in the EX. members’ states? Firstly, to understand these phenomena, we are going to explain the history of environmental policy and to see the different changes about the enlargement of the European Union. Secondly, we talk about the Sues environmental policy generates business opportunities for ELI companies in the new EX.. Thirdly, Turkey is one of the accession countries.
Environmental policy of the European Union 1) History Environmental policy is a relatively recent EX. policy area. Environmental protection was not mentioned in the Treaty of Rome (1 958), and it was not until 1972 that the first of a series of European Environmental Action Plans (PAP) was launched. The Single European Act (1986) marked the beginning of a more prominent role for environmental protection in EX. policy-making, introducing the principal that environmental protection should be considered in all new Community legislation.
E environmental policy was substantially expanded by the Treaties of Masochist (1992) and Amsterdam (1 997), which made sustainable development one of the Lei’s central objectives. Sustainable development also forms a key part of the Europe 2020 Strategy, which underpins all EX. policy regarding the single market.
The Lisbon Treaty (2007) reiterated the objective of sustainable development and, in 201 0; the EX. renewed a number of environmental Directives to ensure they comply with the Lisbon Treaty. 2) EX. Legislation The European Union applies environmental standards among the highest in the world.They are the result of decades of work. Today, the priorities are: the protection wildlife and the more efficient use of natural resources.
These objectives also contribute to economic growth, because they stimulate innovation and entrepreneurship. The EX. environmental policy operates in overall sectors, they are seven different sectors and I explain them. Protecting biodiversity: The E is committed to the protection of biodiversity, and to halting biodiversity loss within the ELI by 2020. Over the last 25 years the EX.
has built up a vast network of 26. 00 protected areas in all the Member States and an area of more than 750. 000 km, which is 18% of the SUES land area. Known as Natural 2000, it is the largest network of protected areas in the world, and a testament to the importance that EX. citizens attach to biodiversity. The legal basis for Natural 2000 comes from the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive, which form the backbone of the Sues internal biodiversity policy.
Air quality: A clean air supply is essential to our own health and that of the environment.But since the industrial revolution, the quality of the air we breathe has deteriorated considerably – mainly as a result of human activities. Rising industrial and energy production, the burning of fossil fuels and the dramatic rise in traffic on our roads all contribute to air pollution in our towns and cities which, in turn, can lead to serious health problems. For example, air pollution is increasingly being cited as the main cause of lung conditions such s asthma – twice as many people suffer from asthma today compared to 30 years ago.The issue of air quality is still a major concern for many European citizens. It is also one of the areas in which the European Union has been most active.
Since the early 1 sass, the E has been working to improve air quality by controlling emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere, improving fuel quality, and by integrating environmental protection requirements into the transport and energy sectors. Waste management: By 2020, the COED estimates, we could be generating 45% more waste than we did in 1995.To avoid this, the EX. is aiming to do this through the new waste-prevention initiatives, a better use of resources and encouraging a shift to more sustainable consumption. That’s why the EX. is calling for improved manufacturing methods and asking consumers to demand greener and recycled products and less packaging.
Quality Of drinking water: While Europe is largely considered as having adequate water resources, water scarcity and drought is an increasingly frequent and widespread phenomenon in the European Union.Protecting Rupee’s shared water resources and ecosystems effectively from pollution, climate change and urine litter requires concerted action at EX. level. EX. water policy aims to give all Europeans access to good quality water in sufficient quantity, to ensure that all water bodies across Europe meet minimum standards of cleanliness and to preserve vulnerable aquatic environments.
Using resources efficiently: If we are to avoid a crisis in our use of limited natural resources, fundamental changes are needed to our economy.As well as lawmaking, the EX. helps provide the public education, research and public funding crucial for this. Its response is a blend Of long-term plans and incremental changes -? like rooming CEO-friendly products and encouraging greater use of energy- efficiency labels on consumer appliances like washing machines. Funding a greener ELI: The Sues main way of backing environmental and conservation projects is through its LIFE programmer, which disburses funds in the EX. and outside, in potential member countries and other neighboring countries.
Since 1 992, LIFE has put some ?billion into over 3,000 projects, like reintroducing the bearded vulture in Andalusia, converting laminates into energy and aluminum and restoring coastal meadows and wetlands on Baltic Sea islands. Use of chemicals: Starting in the late nineties and causing considerable debate, new horizontal chemicals legislation was developed, and in 2007, REACH entered into force. Reaches primary aim is “to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment”.In the coming decade, REACH will place the burden of proof on industry, which has to collect or generate the data necessary to ensure the safe use of chemicals. I- Opportunities’ businesses 1) In accession countries In order to join the union, countries need to fulfill the economic and political conditions known as the ‘Copenhagen criteria’ according to which a respective member must be a stable democracy, respecting human rights, the rule of law, and the protection of minorities.
Furthermore, they have to have a functioning market economy and adopt the common rules, standards and policies that make up the body of EX. law. By their date of accession, candidate countries must be able to effectively apply all E legislation and policy. The E enlargement process provides a major opportunity for the protection of the environment.
Compliance with the environmental acquired, is a significant challenge for the candidate countries (Turkey, Croatia, the roomer Yugoslav Republic Of Macedonia, Iceland, Montenegro and Serbia) and the potential candidates (Albania, Bosnia and Herringbone, Spooks). The perspective of membership offers a framework for development, and provides concrete targets to be achieved. The Sues Stabilization and Association Process (SAP) was launched in 1 999 and is the EX. framework policy for the countries of South East Europe (except Turkey).In the field of environment it aims to bring about different improvements in the medium and longer term through as the harmonistic with the environmental norms and standards of the ELI; placing the environmental protection issues high on the political agenda, at all levels of government; the exchange of experience and know-how with the new EX. Member States who have recent experience of the transition process; stronger co-operation on trans boundary environmental issues; increased public awareness of environmental issues through higher openness and access to environmental information.During the pre-accession period, the European Commission works with the candidate countries and potential candidates to assist them in adapting their environmental legislation and upgrading their implementation and enforcement capacities in order to meet the Sues environmental protection requirements. Preparations for membership present three particular challenges for the environmental sector: Firstly, in the legal sector, over 200 pieces of EX.
environmental legislation have to be transposed into national legislation in a relatively short period of time.Secondly, the administrative sector: often weak and under-resourced administrations have to be significantly strengthened to be able to implement and enforce the environmental acquired. In addition, competences in the field of environment re often shared between several public administration bodies (ministries and institutions), requiring good coordination mechanisms. Finally the financial sector: substantial financial resources and investments in infrastructure and technology are needed to establish, adapt, improve and modernize the facilities and infrastructure in particular in the waste and the water sectors.The Commission communication sets out the Session’s pre-accession strategy for the Central and Eastern European countries (EXEC). Its aim is to supplement the Partnerships for accession and to help the candidate Mounties improve their national programmer for the adoption of the Community acquired. 2) The main sector challenges In the Environment policy, there are a lot of challenges in different fields such as: Air pollution is largely due to emissions from stationary sources (power plants and district heating installations).
The first step must be to identify zones and agglomerations where E limits are being exceeded; it is equally important to modernism refineries so that they comply with European standards. Waste management: The steps for the approximation of legislation have accelerated in some countries since 1997 (national investment programmer, modernization of incinerators). Water pollution: It is the major investment programmer to improve drinking water quality and waste water management are under way in most of the countries. However, little progress has been made in transposing and applying the “nitrates” Directive.
Industrial pollution control and risk management: This area needs special attention on the part of the candidate countries since they have numerous heavily-polluting industrial and energy production facilities (transposition and implementation of the “Sevens” Directive would considerably reduce the risk of serious accidents). Nuclear safety and addition protection: All Of the countries have recently adopted a basic law, which needs to be supplemented by additional legislation in order to ensure full transposition (this legislation is also required in countries which do not produce nuclear power).Application of the environmental acquired will require the creation of costly infrastructure for the supply of drinking water; waste water management; large combustion plants; waste management. Ill – Turkey: one of the accession countries Turkey has a number of pressing environmental concerns, notably chemical and detergent pollution in its waters and heavily contaminated Black sea, as ell as poor urban air quality as a result of burning heating fuel, high levels of car ownership and under-developed public transportation. Industry, particularly cement, sugar, fertilizes and metallurgy, often lacks modern filtration equipment.Some 70 percent of Turkish land surface is affected by soil erosion, resulting in the loss of one billion tones of topsoil a year. The European Commission estimates that ? 70 billion investment required for upgrading the country to the Community rules for one area of the environment.
* There are inevitably new challenges brought by enlargements to both the SEIZE and to the new member states. The need for administrative reinforcement, institutional adaptation and wider inclusion of the public in the new member states is still deemed necessary.On the other hand, data on performance in implementation of new member states do not reveal worrying statistics. Besides, it seems that the enlargements have reinforced the direction CE was taking since the early sass, more flexible and less legally binding instruments that allow for more room for maneuver in implementation, more cooperation with member states before the proposal is framed and more attention given to implementation of existing laws rather Han coming up with new proposals.