Early childhood development is an important mission, with the World Bank spanning child development projects with more than $600 million dollars in the last 10 years (http://unu. edu). Since the 1980s the World Bank began massive lending to third world countries in need, investing a large share, about 60%, going to projects in India.
Investing in early childhood development is looked at as a powerful economic investment for many reasons including; breaking cycles of malnutrition and poor education for poor families, preventing insults resulting in growth failure, and lastly investing in young children’s health, nutrition, and early stimulation, which has been shown to exceed the returns from investments on any of the individual interventions. When introducing the different arguments that can be made about the importance of investing in early childhood development in India, two primary arguments can be made.
One, the question is asked, should the World Bank loan over 60% to developing nations such as India for early childhood development? And two, what are some of the benefits of loaning to countries such as India for early childhood development programs? Concerning the first question I would argue that in helping children develop at an early age, an investment is made in the future of the child, and the future of the country in which the child lives.
Studies have shown that since the government in India began to implement integrated Child development services in 1974, and covers over 37% of some of the primary development units in the country, providing services to over 100 million individuals. These early child development services provide early education, nutrition, and health packages to children up to six years of age, from lower income households, which greatly effect the behavior of the children, instilling in them a sense of hope for the future.
I think the reason why early childhood development programs in India are of such importance is primarily because India is an agricultural nation, and if its children do not grow in the proper circumstances, it could greatly affect the rest of the world in which India exports its products (Britannica Encyclopedia,2008). One major large cash crop in India is cotton, if the children of the nation do not grow up with a proper education, and in good health, there is little chance for the survival of India’s agriculture (Encarta Encyclopedia, 2008).
When answering the second question presented, I feel that by investing in early childhood development in India, the World Bank will see a tremendous return on investment. I think that by investing in India’s early childhood development, India’s socio-economic returns will increase. Studies have shown that when different developmental and health care programs are implemented, the countries exports increase by nearly 35% (http://www. unicef. org).
I feel that by helping with early childhood development programs in India, we are preventing a major disaster from occurring, not only in India’s economy, but the economy of the world, largely dependent on many of the crops grown in India. Studies have shown that since the World Bank has increased childhood developmental programs, and health care programs in India, the number of children attending scholastic and developmental programs has risen by 30% (Britannica Encyclopedia, 2008).
Also, the development of health care programs has greatly helped India, which has one of the world’s highest number of HIV cases, with about 5. 7 million, and expected to grow to over 20 million by 2010 (Mukherjee, 2007). By instituting developmental health care programs for children, we can more effectively drop the mortality rate of HIV amongst young children, who could be born with the virus without having a choice. Socio-Economic Returns Investing in preschool programs for children who come from families that cannot afford education can have many socio economic returns.
By investing in education for poor children, those children will thrive more in primary and secondary schools. With over 40% of India’s population under 18, it is forced to confront the perils of its failure to educate its citizens, which can have lasting effects on the country’s economy, and the intelligence and behavior of its citizens (Sengupta, 2008). By investing more in the education sector of India and the potential for children to increase productivity, and have greater earning potential when they enter the workforce has been shown to increase significantly.
In fact, researchers shown that since the institution of public education programs, children’s average IQ scores have risen by 15% (http://www. unicef. org). Also, considering the AIDS crisis in India, there have been attempts to institute sexual education within the public schools as well, something rejected by the governments of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh have band sexual education on claims that the learning models are too explicit, and pictures too graphic.
Studies of shown that by increasing health care, and public education, the number of uneducated children has dropped by 40% (Chu, 2008). Research also shows that by increasing public expenditures associated with education, and health care, poverty in India has dropped by 35% (Encarta Encyclopedia, 2008). Also by increasing education facilities, jobs have increased as well, the need for teachers is expected to rise significantly over the next 10 years. With the institution of free lunch programs within the schools, many children in poor areas are drawn in, in large numbers, and receive meals.
Considering that nearly 30% of India’s population is under 25, it is imperative that they’re given a proper education if the country is to survive. Studies have shown that when the youth of the country is uneducated, the country’s economy greatly suffers because of it. By increasing education in India, the workforce of the young children coming out of grade school, and going into trade schools, the number of young male and females entering the workforce will grow exponentially.
Studies predict that if the educational system, and health care programs being enforced continue, and the World Bank continues funding India’s eight cities in these areas, than adults entering into the workforce is expected to grow by 42% in 2015, a whopping number. Also, the increase in early childhood development programs in India has led to an economic boom within the Internet. Studies have shown that the work at home market in India has grown by over 20% (Vidyasagar, 2008). Also, since the World Bank’s major investments in India, its imports and exports have increased exponentially.
Studies have shown that two major cash crops, cotton, and tobacco have increased by 35% (http://worldisgreen. com). Thus when viewing the statistics, studies have shown that it is extremely beneficial to focus on child development programs in India, not only as a vital role in their economy, but a vital role in our own. I think that by investing in early childhood development programs in India, many children born in poor families will have the opportunity to not only receive an education, but become active members of their community and have the liberty to obtain successful careers.
Research has shown that public expenditures associated with the education and health care in India have and will produce a return, not only for India, but for their surrounding communities, and the world at large. The commercialization of India has resulted in an improvement in overall food consumption, showing that nearly 30% of households reported an increase (http://www. ifad. org). The NGO Factor Non-governmental organizations are lately constituted organizations, created by private sectors or organizations, with no representation of any government.
NGOs are partially funded by governments, but the NGO still maintains its nongovernmental status and so far as it excludes government representatives from membership within the organization itself. Internationally, a number of NGOs operating is estimated at 40,000. India has between one and 2 million nongovernmental organizations that help with various aspects of their society. But, when these nongovernmental organizations were instituted, India’s economy was suffering greatly.
The government could not afford to educate its own citizens, thus leading to a rapid decline in employment. Nongovernmental organizations have a history dating back to at least the mid-19th century. Nongovernmental agencies have played an important part in the woman’s movement that took place in India in the late 80s and early 90s, it is responsible for numerous antislavery movements. With globalization, it is important that countries such as India be helped during times of economic crises, or else it could have lasting effects on the rest of the world.
Nongovernmental organizations have helped many programs concerning early childhood development. In India, over 1000 nongovernmental organizations have been instituted in the development of education programs (http://www. akdn. org). With the help of nongovernmental agencies, India has seen a sharp increase in its education standards, as well as in the number of citizens obtaining their educations. Statistics have shown that education in poor communities in India has risen by over 40% in the last 10 years (Ghosh, 2008).
Also, with the advent of the Internet, it has made distance-learning possible for college students in India who would like to pursue a degree. When exploring the role of nongovernmental organizations, within states that cannot fund basic social services for its citizens because its infrastructure is too weak. Before the institution of so many nongovernmental organizations within India, its government’s infrastructure was too weak, many of its citizens cannot afford a basic education, and cannot afford basic necessities that we, here in America, and in other sophisticated nations take for granted.
Studies have shown that since the inception of nongovernmental organizations within India visa conditions are changed, with programs in early childhood development, rising by 20%, health care programs rising by 35%, employment rising by 20%, just over the last 10 years (http://www. akdn. org). With the inception of nongovernmental organizations within India, they now have greater strength and resources to bring attention to certain issues, especially in the areas of early childhood development and health care.
Nongovernmental organizations have proven to become a necessary part of India for the time being until its government regains the strength to support its own citizens and provide them with a basic necessities needed in order to have a successful economy. The institution of nongovernmental agencies has also helped with the employment of India’s citizens as well. Statistics have shown that rural development within major districts in India, have grown by nearly 20%, which would have never been seen if nongovernmental organizations wouldn’t have lent a helping hand (http://www. ilo. org).
In summary, I would conclude that the nongovernmental organizations factor in India have proven to be extremely successful over the years, and is expected to increase over the next few years, at least until India’s government is stable enough to support itself. We must remember that we have a global economy, which is affected by every nation. The Anganwadis India has developed many community centers, known anganwadis, to help support its communities, as well as provided jobs, education, and health care programs to its citizens. Anganwadis has been supported by the world food program, UNICEF, USAID, and the World Bank.
Among the services provided by the community centers are programs for nutrition and early Child education and development. UNICEF has claimed that it has helped the residents of India by providing early child development programs and education programs, and that its citizens have benefited. UNICEF helped increase the development of health care, and Child education programs, by nearly providing 27% of the resources needed in their initial development (http://www. unicef. org). The World Bank has continued to fund certain nongovernmental agencies, as well as community centers across the nation.
The World Bank has increased its funding by 15% over the last 10 years, and plans to increase by another 20% over the next 20 years (http://theworldbank. org). The world food program, the UN food agency, has reported a 25% increase in food production, and the steady development of industrial businesses interested in contributing to the development of increased food production (http://www. wfp. org). The world food program intends for India to continue to increase its production, and hosted over the next 10 years it will see an increase of 30% in its overall rural production.
India’s community centers have grown stronger and stronger with the help of USAID as well. The USAID has helped with providing economic and humanitarian assistance within India. USAID has helped in developing education programs for the less fortunate in India, and since its inception, India has seen a 27% increase in humanitarian assistance (http://www. usaid. gov). Certain residences in India have claimed that with the help of UNICEF, the World Bank, and USAID, they have seen an increase in their standard of living, and their children’s education.
I find it interesting to note that before India had help from the international community, its farmers were ravaged by debt, and his children were lacking and in need of an education. Before the inception of nongovernmental organizations, and community centers within India, nearly 30% of its youth were not attending school, nor offered a chance at a public education. The community service centers within India help the young impoverished children, by not only providing basic living necessities, education, and health care, but by also offering the citizens a chance to give back by joining the community centers and helping their communities.
It is a national effort for India in order to save its economy, and its future. The international community has tried to help by funding community service centers, nongovernmental organizations, and other third-party institutions in order to help its government regain its strength, so that it will have the ability to provide for its own people once again. India’s one of the largest rural communities, and produces many cash crops such as cotton, tobacco, and tomatoes, and is vital in the global economy.
We must consider how another country suffering can affect the global community, whether it be prices of goods going up, or domestic terrorism, it is vital that we as an international community are ready to help nations in such turmoil. With the help of the international community, India has a bright future. The international community has come together to provide numerous community programs, in which various agencies help rebuild a ravaged economy. The residents of India feel that these community centers receive aid from the world food program. Future Outlook
The future outlook in India looks good, but with the recent development in early childhood education, and health care programs, India has come out a nationwide slump. Before international help, India was experiencing a total destruction of its middle class, and the quality of education provided to its citizens. Based on the information gathered I determine that these programs, such as the community service centers sponsored by UNICEF, the World Bank, and USAID, have helped a great deal and not only allowed India to produce more exports, but stabilize the region, and give hope to its citizens.
India’s position in the world is a unique one due to its fast rising pace in all areas of there economy and middle class. India has experienced growth rates on average of 20 to 40% and that is expected to continue throughout the next decade. As stated earlier, India plays an important role in the world, and that is by delivering key export such as cotton, tobacco, tomatoes, and other agricultural needs. As reported by local residents and respected news sources, India’s educational institutions have improved dramatically.
Before international help, the lower class of India was unable to afford an education for their children, which could have a disastrous effect on its economy. Many in India’s lower class, were farmers, and are dependent off of the crops produced for their income. Agriculture is a vital part of India’s economy, which is why it is important that the community centers and nongovernmental organizations ensure its vitality. With the data gathered, I determined that India has reached an exponential state in its history.
I feel that the various nongovernmental agencies, community centers, and nonprofit organizations, have helped to develop India in a positive way, and that this development will continue throughout the next couple of decades. The residents of India are satisfied with the international help received, and are willing to do their part in repairing their nation’s economy and in helping develop their nation’s children. Since international help, India has been on a rising pace in areas such as Agriculture, and an exploding middle-class.
Before international help, India was off balance, meaning that there middle class was beginning to fade, there was only extremely poor, or extremely rich. Now with recent international involvement the middle class is exploding in India, farmers now have the money they need in order to support their farms, and children have the healthcare and education they need in order to survive. The healthcare programs develop and instituted were primarily develop because of the rising HIV rate amongst its citizens, which is now under control.
Citizens of India are now able to afford the treatment and medications necessary to cope with their illnesses. Now, children are no longer ignored concerning health issues, but given the chance at obtaining healthcare, proper nutrition, and an education that could lead them to a better career in the workforce. With India’s exploding middle-class, its economy has boomed, and all areas of agricultural sector are rising at a fast pace. The World Bank will continue to help fund India’s agricultural sector, and sees India as a return on investment. India will produce positive socio-economic returns for the international community.
It is important now that we realize we’re in a global community, that we must help those countries that are in need of it. Based on the information I gathered. I feel that the global community has responded to this crisis in India, and will continue to respond, understanding full well the impact in seriousness of the situation at hand. It is up to the international community to ensure the success and prosperity of third world nations, in order to strengthen the global community, and provide the assistance necessary to those in need. Conclusion In summary, I feel that the international community has responded in a positive way.
I think that child developmental programs within India are growing, and children are receiving educations in which they deserve. India’s community service centers known as Anganwadis, and other nonprofit organizations such as the world food program, UNICEF, and USAIDE have come to the aid of a nation in crises. The behavior of the people of India has changed dramatically, and now the lower and middle class citizens can hope for a brighter future. India, since its industrialization, has grown at such a fast pace, then many feel it will see almost a triple increase in production within the next 10 years.
UNICEF has responded in a positive way, and a lower class of India can now have the education, and health care necessities, that they deserve. The World Bank has seen their investment in India’s agricultural programs, and community development programs, as a return on investment for the international community. The World Bank feels that because of their funding, India can now experience an unprecedented economic growth. The residents of India feel relieved that the help they sought after has now come. With the help of nongovernmental organizations, early childhood development programs have become more sophisticated.
Due to the studies provided, early childhood development in India is extremely important not only for India, but also for the international community at large. With the inception of help from third-party agencies, we’ve seen huge, socio-economic returns within the international community. India’s future looks bright, and India’s middle class is exploding, it is experiencing unprecedented growth in its economy. Before the inception of the various healthcare programs provided by some of these non-government owned operations, be HIV rate amongst India’s citizens has dropped exponentially.
India’s HIV rate has dropped, and its citizens are now educated in the means of health care, and general sex education. UNICEF has done a good job at providing for India’s agricultural needs, and the World Bank has done an excellent job at keeping its economy afloat until it could sustain for itself. By investing in early childhood development in India, we are not only investing in the future of India, but in our own future as well. We must always remember that India is an important agricultural nation, and if that nation suffers, then there exports will go up in price, which will be passed on to consumers around the world.
India will continue to grow, it’s agricultural continues to grow as well. With the recent help from the international community, consumers around the world can begin reaping the benefits of lower produce. It is important that we as a international community help other nations in need, and that includes investing in early childhood development within India. It is vital for India’s economy that their children are educated, not only in the ways of agriculture, but also in medicine, science, math, and other various subjects that first world countries have the benefit of obtaining.
Based on the research provided, I feel confident that India will continue to grow, and there cultural needs will be met. I have confidence in early childhood development plans for India, and hope that the international community will continue to invest in such. These statistics provided offer a bright future, a future that we can all partake in, if we come together and help one another. By investing more in the agricultural sector of India, consumers worldwide will reap the benefits. It is vital that more people gain an understanding of situations greatly impacting Third World countries, such as those that were affecting India. References
UNICEF Monitoring the Situation (2008) Home page retrieved April 22, 2008 from http://www. childinfo. org/ News and Communications of Duke University (2002) documentary exhibit explores early childhood development in India retrieved April 22, 2008 from http://www. dukenews. duke. edu/2002/04/india0402. html India. (2008). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 22, 2008, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online: http://www. britannica. com/eb/article-9111197 Dasgupta, S (2002) Organizing for Socio-Economic Security in India retrieved on April 22, 2008, form http://www. ilo. org/public/english/protection/ses/download/docs/india_sukti. pdf
Sengupta, S (2008) Education Push Yields Little for India’s Poor The New York Times retrieved on April 22, 2008 from: http://www. nytimes. com/2008/01/17/world/asia/17india. html? ex=1201237200&en=732801824b94a168&ei=5070&emc=eta1 Chu, H (2008) Indian State Grapples with Teacher Truancy The Los Angeles Times retrieved on April 22, 2008 from: http://www. latimes. com/news/nationworld/world/asia/la-fg-hooky27mar27,1,6855154. story Mukherjee, K (2007) Sex Education Creates Storm in AIDS-stricken India The Washington Post retrieved on April 22, 2008 from: http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/07/14/AR2007071401390. html