Early Modern Essay The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) first began with whenthe Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II of Bohemia tried to reduce the religiousactivities of his subjects, provoked rebellion among Protestants. The warinvolved the strongest powers in europe for example, Sweden, France, Spain andAustria all of them prosecuting campaigns mainly on german land.
Mostly knownfor the cruel wrong doings by mercenary soldiers, ending the war with a coupleseries of agreements that made up the Peace of Westphalia. The consequense ofthis adjusted and changed the political and religious map of central Europe,creating the oppertunity for the old centralized Roman Catholic empire tosubmit to a community of sovereign states.the Holy Roman Empire is a broad complex of one thousandseparate, small, self govering, political groups under the domain of theAustrian Hapsburgs. Over the last two centuries, the balance of power in thedominant states emerged. But this endedin the sixteenth century where the Reformation and the Counter Reformationdivided Germany into aggressive Protestant and Catholic camps, each prepared torequest help from other countires to assure its integrity if it becamenecessary. in 1618, whenFerdinand II started to remove certain religious privileges and enjoying thecontent there.
Directly requesting for aid to the Protestants in the empire andto the bigger foreign Protestant states. For example, the Dutch Republic anddenmark. Ferdinand responds with asking bavaria who is leading the GermanCatholics and spain. In the following effort, Ferdinand that got elected asRoman Emperor in 1619 and his allies won a important victory at White Mountain(1620) which allowed the annihilation of Protestantism in most parts of theHapsburg lands.
Confident by this success, Ferdinand turned in 1621 againstBohemia’s Protestant supporters in Germany. even though having the help fromBritain, Denmark, and the Dutch Republic they lost aswell and by 1629 imperialarmies commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein killed most of Protestant Germanyand a big part of Denmark. Ferdinand then distrubited the Edict of Restitution,taking back lands in the empire thatbelongs to the Catholic Church that had been captured and separated fromreligion by Protestant rulers.Swedish military support saved the Protestant cause.
In1630 an army led by King Gustav Adolf came to Germany with money from theFrench.for twelve years more armies carried out the dirty war,made both too support themselves and to demolish everything useful for theenemy country. Trouble arose when men had problems locating resources. After time, came France’s victoryover the Spaniards at Rocroi (1643) thus Sweden’s defeat of the Imperialists atJankau (1645) forcing the Hapsburgs to make compromises that in 1648 led to thePeace of Westphalia, which fixed most of the larger issues.
The Treaty is a very important document which carries theinformation about the history of Europe with details of returning the takenterritories,about wrong doing events during the war and agreement that thearmies would be disbanded and all of the prisoners from war set free. A very important political result of thewar and the treaty was that France became a dominant state in continental Europe.The Treaty also laid the legal foundations for the modern system of IR.Things that were new in this war was that it can becalled the first modern war.
New fighting forces were made like mercenarytroops and armed marauders. War became an industry which people couldpersonally gain on and profiteers plundred resources at every given chance. Theamountof people kiled was estimated to be around 4-12 milion lives, way morebrutal and vicious than any other previous war. The Dutch EmpireThe Dutch Empire is the name given to the differentterritories controlled by the Netherlands. They were one of the most strongestcountries during most of the 17th century, also known as Dutch Golden Age.In these times your social status was determined mostlyby your salary, middle class was what well payed individuals fell under, forinstance a lawyer or a small merchant but anything like farmers and shopkeeperswere lower class and below that fell servants and sailorsThe Netherlands became part of the Habsburg dynasty’sdomain when Emperor Charles V divided the lands between his sons following hisresignation in 1555.
In 1566, the Dutch revolt erupted and in 1568 the Eightyyears’ war also known as the war of independence, got into full swing, thedutch empire started looting and pillaging all that belonged to Spain at thetime.The Netherlands followed Portugal and Spain in building acolonial empire outside continential Europe. The Dutch East India Company beingdominant, with the British, the Dutch originally made colonial possessionsbecause of corporate colonialism. some provinces of the Netherlands weren’tfond of Spain’s control over them, so some of them joined together in leagueagainst Spain, some of which I consider more important were the county ofHolland, the county of Flanders, the county of Zeeland, the lordship ofFriesland and the lordship of Utrecht. One of the places (the county ofFlanders) was almost entirely conquered by the Spaniards, those under the unionstill recognized Spain as their ruler until the Twelve Years Truce which markeda new dawn for the Dutch as Spain finally recognized them as their own nationand not as their rulers.After that, the Netherlands began in their advances oneof which was the Bank of Amsterdam which is considered by some the first moderncentral bank, which went on to be even more influential with the rising pricesof precious metals that went through Europe from the New World, Japan and otherplaces around the globe.Dutch sailors also participated in the surge of explorationthat unfolded in the 16th and 17th centuries.
But the vast new territoriesrevealed by Barents, Hudson and Tasman in the Arctic and in Australasia/Oceaniadid not generally become permanent Dutch colonies.With outa doubt the biggest strength of the Dutch was their economy, it was what shinedbrightest. Aptly given the name Dutch Golden Age, the boom in their capital andinflux of merchants to the colony quickly made the Dutch an economicpowerhouse. The fact that the seven nations had separate governments wasn’tvery helpful when it came to coordinating the rebellion against Spain