Discuss realism and liberalism debate in International Relations.
I will discuss the debate between realism and liberalism in International Relations. However, before that I would explain first what is International Relations shortly, where there is the theory of realism and the theory of liberalism. International relations generally examine the cooperation between two countries or many countries. International relations learned about the many different theories and views of the characters. This international relationship was first formed in Aberyswyth and formed in 1919. However, at that moment international relations were referred to as international politics. Finally, after the passage of the international relations field is used throughout the world. Many things are seen or learned through this international contact area. Among them are political, economic, legal, social and cultural, geography, diplomacy, psychology and more. There are many reasons why we should study in this international relationship. This is because, all countries have their respective identities
The views of the characters for each event are definitely different. This is because why we should talk about state behavior and the way of administration in the country and link it to the many type of theory that emerge in International Relations scope. The administration of a country is certainly related to how the country’s leader is managing its administration. As we can see in the scope of this International Relations is mostly from history which includes great power and issues arising out of that great power. International Relations can also be said to be positive and normative, as it is sometimes based on fact and also based on opinion and also because it sums up how the making of foreign policy. Because of this, many different approaches from each figure become a discussion among themselves. Hence, there are many scopes that cover international issues in International Relations such as terrorism, human rights, national sovereignty, diplomatic relations between nations, nationalism and more.
Furthermore, realism is the major theory of International Relations that emphasizes the strength of a nation, how its role, and the military strength of a country in the political world. The focus of realism the analysis from the realist is the struggle of power in the states and in the international system. The theory of realism greatly influenced the world in International Relations when at the end of World War II. This is because, realist scientists feel that realism theory is the right theory to explain the issue that occurred at that time. The state behavior of the related country makes realists sure of the theory in which this theory which is realism can be applied to restore the instability of international affairs at that time. Realism also have a more implicit, namely classical realism and neorealism.
Meanwhile, liberalism also one of the major theory of International Relations that gives contemporary democracy of view. From this point, democracy is one of parliament where people are free to choose with fair and free elections, have the sovereignty of the government and the law and freedom of civil. Obviously, from here we can see that liberalism are more focusing in on enhancing global political and economic cooperation.
A) The similarities between Realism and Liberalism Theory
The similarities between realism and liberalism theory is their international system is anarchy. Anarchy is one of core concept in realism theory and both theory admit that the way global politics are or the way global politic happen it is all because of international anarchy. Both theory admit that international system is anarchy. This is because, realism and liberalism believes that in international system there is no one dominant power or body in system, rules or sovereignty. Yet, both theory has the different view on how they perspectives on states and how the states will behave in the situation of anarchy system.
B) The Differences Between Realism and Liberalism Theory.
Firstly, for the differences between this two theory which is realism and liberalism are the different perspectives on state. Realism and liberalism has different perspective on the focus of the analysis, the major of state, and the behavior of states. In realism, state is the most important actor. This is why the focus of the analysis for realism is the struggle for power among states in that anarchic international system. To emphasize, realism is more talking about power, international anarchy and talking about influence in states. In realism, the word of war is a tool of foreign policy and establish to the perpetual peace. This is why the realist perspective sees the world largely in terms of an inevitable struggle for power and survival between unequal states. There are several basic concepts for understanding in realism which is self-help, balance of power, hegemony, anarchy, power, and security dilemma. Indeed, the major actors for realism is the states for the realist. Realist thought of these states are rational and they are unitary actors by rational of making any decisions to the states. In fact, for realist, states act rationally in order to make decisions and through this rational actor is one who has an ordered preferences and from this is to accomplish and to choose the option that going to provide the most utility in making the decisions. The goal of the states is to enhancing the power by enhancing and developing their power in security. In the case of enhancing the power, this show the real concern of most of the realist is the protection of their state by enhancing the security or so called military.
While, liberalism has the opposite perspective on states. On the other hand, realism is more focusing on states for the major actor but opposite to liberalism where liberals are more focusing on maintain a good relations governance between the state and people. Liberals thought of states that states are not always seeking rational behavior but in the other hand they are more seeking for compromise that occurs between various interest within the states in order to provide cooperation across the states. In other words, liberalism are beyond just the state other actors such as International Non-Governmental Organizations, Non-Governmental Organizations and Multinational Corporations. Doubtless, the goals of the liberalism are economic prosperity and stability. Here we can see that economic play a huge role in liberalism perspective. Therefore, liberals support more in international cooperation where their more emphasize the right of the others countries and other countries interest. As an example, International Monetary Fund is the organizations that encouraging cooperation in global monetary, encouraging the free trade, and increase the welfare among states. To add to that, we can sum up that the idea of liberalism is that power can be shared is also going to help the states to overcome the barriers to cooperation such as security dilemma.
Following by the second differences between this two theory which is realism and liberalism has the different view towards human nature. Realism believes that human nature is evil where realism is tending to not have faith toward human nature or dependent on human nature. This is because, realist see the world as in terms of tragedy and evil and realists believe that human nature is evil where human nature is born with hatred, begrudge and born with sin. To emphasize, realism is more to seek for autonomy. It is because realist would tell that human itself or states cannot trust anyone in this world and also states also do not want to be interdependent or too much interdependent towards other. Unquestionably, the realist is more confident that it is caused by the character of human-nature itself, the occurrence of war. Human by nature in realism also thinks that with the character they have and because of their unbelief towards human nature, they have to work harder and not depend on others in order to gain power. That’s how the states act against other states. For example, we can see through armed warfare during World War 1. To show that through this incident we can see the countries involved in the battle rallying to further and increase the number of their weapons.
Besides, liberalism is largely regarded as a side of a positive human nature. Liberalism also assumes that human nature is good and argues that as a part of human nature, human nature has the ability to have inner self-esteem and believe that human nature will bring happiness. There are some reasons why the liberalists believe that human nature will make progress and happiness is because the liberalists believe that people are guided by reason and by rational thoughts on something. Because of this, human nature is reasonable and they are also rational. Therefore, they can solve the problem faced without the use of force regards to the use of reason and rationality which is this allows them to solve the problem or the issue that they encounter without even using violence through the discussion. For this reason, they will think and talk about it to find the solution. Liberalism also believes that cooperation will bring the progress. In addition, protection is also important for wellbeing. For example, we can see how the United Nations is concerned with and promotes the protection of human rights and virtues in order that countries can unite and cooperate.
Last but not least, the third differences between realism and liberalism is the way they view or the way they define peace. Realists think that in order to maintain peace, in international system must have balance of power. For realists, balance of power are the key concepts in politics. Balance of power is the states behavior, where states act to preserve a balance in power or like equilibrium of power in the system in order to have a balancing power. For example, there are five states and that five states all roughly equivalent in power and their has approximate identical size in power. Above all the behavior of states which states act to preserve a balance in the system is to prevent each five states to dominating all the others which is power in the system. This is because, all the five country are will grow and extent their power to dominate the other states or to dominate the system. Through this idea, the other states will act to balance that power and make an effort to achieve the equilibrium in the system. In addition, the one out of five states that have influence in the system trying to enhanced their power in political and the others states will feel nervous and they also will be increasing their power whether it is in military capacity, forming an alliances or any idea to gain the power. Another example, we can see through during the Cold War where United States of America and Soviet Union are the powerful in the system at that time, and this caused the minor power to had limitation from become stronger of the power in system, through this they can reduced the conflicts between the states.
In contrast, from the way liberals view the peace is there are many ways to make a peace. There are several ideas that liberals propose in order to have peace which is democratic peace. Where democratic countries do not go on war with other country. Insofar as, no democratic country will have no fought against other democratic countries. So the through democratic views there will be no more war. The other idea of liberalism also through the interconnected by cooperating whether in politically or economically with others country. Through the alliance, whether the alliance in economy or defense with neighbor or other countries, you would not want to have a war or conflict with the countries that you make an alliance to. This is because, you want to maintain the closed relationship. In general, from this we can see that there are so many huge differences between realism and liberalism theory.
C) The Issues in Real-World (Realism and Liberalism)
Firstly, I’m going to explain the template of realism and liberalism theory with the example of the issues into the real-world example in Syria civil war. As I have already explained about how realism is, so realism is the viewpoint that states are just out to maximize their own power. Realism is just self-interest, and what they do is to develop their capabilities and their security interest in the international system. Realism also does not care about what happens to other states and they just promote their own interest. On the other hand, liberalism also believes that states can go beyond these basic power struggles and enter into more international areas of cooperation. Liberalism also believes that they can pursue peace and they can also begin to be free with values such as human rights and democracy where they can be exported to all over the world. Further to this, to see how the templates of this theory of realism and liberalism work in the international system, we will see and pretend to be a liberalist and realist from the United States of America’s view to see Syria Civil War’s issues. In this way, we will see how to react to the issues as a realist of the United States of America in the issues of the Civil War and also how the liberalist of the United States of America reacts to the issues. As liberalist of United States of America, where liberalist is more apt to intervene in the Syrian Civil War military. While, realist will not hesitate to not intervene militarily in the Syrian Civil War. I will give a view, a broad overview about if we are liberals and look at the issues of the Syrian Civil War we will give reason and would precipitate the United States to intervene in this Syrian Civil War issue. international norms have been violated in the Syrian Civil War by the Assad regime. Liberals will argue that Assad regime should not break the norms in international system. In fact, liberals would argue that you should protect the human right and should not use chemical weapons in the warfare. These are the norms of the international community that have been agreed. All these norms should not be broken. Liberals state that the Assad regime verifiably has broken these international norms. In contrast, by the realist and realist will react to the Syrian Civil War which the realist will say that the issues Syrian Civil War is terrible but sadly the Assad are bombs his own citizens and it does not affect or involve the United States of America as they not attacking or bombing us and there is no reason for us to be involved in these issues. Being involved in this war is just a disadvantage because if we intervene in these issues we will not get any profit from Syria. In fact, by engaging in the Syrian Civil War only costs a lot of money, costs a lot of lives. To conclude, from what happening in Syria is very wrong and both realist and liberalist are still standing to it because we are doing nothing because it is clear that intervention will only complicate and things will be worse for all that involved in the issues.
To close my debate, the way of declaring in international order and conceiving or seeing themselves in international order really tells them how they are acting internationally. To understand the views in realism and liberalism component is we must see through the each of event and make a rational comparison. In consequences, we will use these ideologies as a template to engage in the biggest foreign policy decisions or issues for many states today and from this we can see how scholar in International Relations react to the global issues with their reason and with depth explanation from their understanding.
Discuss realism and liberalism debate in International Relations.