Diego FiemeyerBrandon ZarattiGLA 3453.
0015 December 2017Federalism in Mexico InSeptember 28, 1821 Mexico declared its independence from Spain after an 11-yearstruggle that started on the 16th of September 1810. Once free from the Spanishempire, Augustin de Iturbide (leader of Mexico’s independence), established theshort-lived Mexican Empire (1821-23). After the demise of the first MexicanEmpire, Generals Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna and Guadalupe Victoria wrote andsigned the “Plan of Casa Mata.” This plan sought to establish a republic ratherthan a monarchy, but on the 4th October, 1824 “the federal constitution of theUnited Mexican States of 1824” was enacted, providing the first ground work tocreate a federal republic. Later on, the Constitution of 1857replaced the constitution of 1824, emphasizing individual rights by adding newreform laws. Finally, after the Mexican Revolution the “Political Constitutionof the United Mexican States” was drafted in 1917 becoming the longest lastingconstitution (currently in force) in Mexico.
This constitution helped changeMexican political philosophy, framing its political and social aspects such asestablishing a free and secular education. As history has shown, before andafter gaining independence, Mexico has faced a series of political struggles,shaping the two ends of its political spectrum. With conservatives seeking anauthoritarian regime, while the liberals favored a government with a populistrepresentative, shaping the 31 state governments within Mexico. As theUnited States the Mexican Constitution establishes Mexico as a federation witha republican form of government, which includes a bicameral system (twosymmetric and incongruent House of Congress).
Furthermore, executive powerwithin the state is vested on the governor who serves a 6-year term withoutre-election. States within the federal system enjoy an independent andautonomous internal administrations, but they aren’t entitled to declare war ormake alliances with other nations. Lastly, through each state’s constitutionthey are able to establish their own Judiciary branch with the powers beingvested upon the tribunals. Prior to 2000,the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) has dominated Mexico from 1929to 2000, creating a strong centralized political system due to a powerfulfederal executive. With this in mind, the President can remove governors fromtheir posts through constitutional means, basically controlling the governmentsof each state.
Once the PRI lost the election to the PAN candidate Vicente Fox,State governments were able to open their political spaces and were able toparticipate in negotiations such as trade though legislative power from thestate’s congress.