Diabetes mellitus is commonly shortened as diabetes. It is a disorder where blood sugar remain high for a long period. The reason being either the pancreas not producing sufficient insulin or body cells do not respond well or properly to the insulin. Unless treated properly, many serious complications can arise from diabetes. These include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state or even death. Other related long-term complications could be disease of the kidney and heart, ulcers of the foot, stroke and eye damage.
Diabetes is a common disease and can strike at any age. For one with higher than normal body mass index, higher cholesterol level or a larger waist circumference, the tendency to have diabetes will increase dramatically. (Zhao et al, 2016). China has the largest population of people who have diabetes. Nearly 109.6 million people aged 20-79 in China were diagnosed with diabetes by the end of 2016. (Lin et al. 2017). It is reported that the prevalence of diabetes increases with age but the oldest group is likely to diagnose. (Zhao et al. 2016)
Findings from the studies add to the current literature of how depression, diabetes, diabetes self-efficacy and diabetes self-management can impact the glycaemic control among type 2 diabetes patient. (Lin et al. 2017)
The purpose of this report is a review of two recent papers on diabetes. One paper estimates the prevalence of diabetes in China and examines the direct and indirect effects on the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The other analyses the approach and treatment satisfaction of women who are suffering from gestational diabetes and its relation to the glycaemic level.
This report is suited for nurses given their important role in the healthcare industry. Besides caregiving, a nurse is a health educator being the messenger to channel relevant and important information to the patient’s family members.
From the findings, there were 41.5% of prediabetes prevalence reported in China. (Zhao et al.) While another study was about how depression, diabetes distress, diabetes self-efficacy and diabetes self-management will en masse impact the glycaemic control among Chinese patients who are suffering from Type 2 diabetes was 18%. 21.11% of the patients had a certain attitude while the 73.5% had adequate treatment satisfaction (Hussain, Yusoff and Sulaiman 2014)
Both papers are reporting based on the current China diabetes’ data. One article estimates the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), the success in diagnosing and methods of diabetes management in China. This article is done by Zhao et al., 2016. The other article examines the direct and indirect effects of depression, diabetes self-management, diabetes control effectiveness through self-management on glycaemic control on type 2 DM patients in China is done by Lin et al., 2017.
The reports from the 2 articles reports show how diabetes are managed or controlled in different regions within China given the significantly high number of diabetes or prediabetes patients existing in China. A report done by Zhao et al. 2016, shows the prevalence, diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus (DM) among older Chinese (45 years and above). Sampling method used are multi-stage, stratified, random samples that were drawn from data China Health and Retirement Longitudinal (CHARLS) Study in China. The sampling undergone computer programming to prevent human mishandling. The result of patients who are 45 years old and above indicated there were 17.4% having diabetes versus 41.9% having prediabetes. Out of the 17.4%, there were 59.3% who were undiagnosed.
Similarly, for the report by Lin et al., 2017, there were only 35.82% of participants who managed to obtain an optimal glycaemic control of HbA1c <7.0% or 53mmol/mol. As reported, the only direct effect on the glycaemic control is self-management. The report also highlights other diabetic concerns such as depression, diabetes distress and diabetes self-efficacy all have an indirect effect on glycaemic control. Descriptive statistics, independent student's T-test, Chi-square tests, correlation analyses and generalised structural equation modelling were used and patient's medical history on diabetes was obtained from their past medical records for data collection. (Lin et al.,2017) Both articles also have their dissimilarities. As one of the article is talking about the estimation of predominance and the methods of how to manage this disease in China. (Zhao et al. 2016) The data source is based on already collected data in existence. The other article is based on random samples of a survey by sourcing through existing diabetic patients. The report focuses on the direct or indirect impact on depression, responsibility on their diabetes on glycaemic control among a group of type 2 DM patients. (Lin et al. 2017) From the research findings of Zhao et al. 2016, the data is limited to those of age 45 years and above living in cities or the coastal regions but not other rural areas. Hence its applicability is for city dwellers and for middle-aged and elderly patients who have diabetes and or forecast as prediabetes. Given its limited age range, the 41.9% of prediabetes reported might be an under-estimation of the actual prediabetes patients in China. The situation is deemed unfavourable for those staying in city and around the coastal areas. The disease may differ within China and the wealthy people have a highly likely to have diabetes or prediabetes. On the other hand, the other article, Lin et al. 2017, focuses on how the different disorders that mashes up together cause diabetes and it will have a clash which will influence the glycaemic control level. The article also aims to seek out on the main significance of diabetes self-management in acquiring the optimum glycaemic level. It features other disorders that diabetic patients may suffer from. These include depression, ability to self-medicate and its effectiveness. Moreover, diabetes pain can also affect the glycaemic control obliquely through self-management of diabetes and it indicates 18% of difference in the self-efficacy scores. The limitation for both articles is that they did not have a bigger sample size which restrict the wider or national applicability of the results. Personally, I feel that the national sampling and survey should be done. The wide applicability of its significance can also be extended beyond China to other East Asian nations given their similar diets and liked culture. In addition, both articles have limited sample size and one article only did sampling for those 45 years and above. In conclusion, findings from these studies shows that diabetes is a wide-spread disease across China and some effective measures can be implemented, for example, programs for the diabetes reduction based on number of prediabetes. The implications of diabetes and the magnitude of other disorders related to diabetes may also be used to avert the degradation to life quality due to diabetes or prevent their impacts for the diabetes patients. The reports can be stimulus for further investigations within China and for other East Asia nations to improve the diabetes situation. However, the road to recovery also requires positivity and self-management to improve the situation.