Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors. A child is influenced by a range of Personal factors such as: – Influences before and at birth eg. Maternal diet during pregnancy or birth itself eg. problems due to lack of oxygen etc. – Health – child who has ill health may spend time in hospital and miss time from pre-school and school affecting their learning on all levels including emotional and social phases of making friends etc.
Also conditions like asthma triggered by certain situations could affect child’s physical growth and need hospital/doctors visits etc. – Disability – this one is kind of obvious but I also include the effects of a child with disability and also parents with disabilities can have an effect on the child’s development. It can put a child at a disadvantage in a lot of ways e. g. If a child had restricted movements they may find it difficult to join in at things such as play, putting building blocks together and manipulating materials etc…
– Sensory impairment –Visual or hearing. A child that has a hearing problem would be influenced in their development; it could have an effect on their speech and communication and may make them feel they are not capable to join in with other children’s games. Visual impairment can also manipulate a Childs development they might not be able to watch and learn from what others are doing. They may have trouble learning their way around new environments such as a new school.
As each area of education is co-dependent on others a child with a disability could have postponements in all areas of learning so would need support in all areas to help them reduce delays. pc[2. 2] Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors. A child is influenced by a range of External factors such as: – Poverty- in diet (nutritional issues could result in a lack of energy and concentration); in opportunities for play might not have funds to have extra lessons such as music/swimming lessons; in poor housing (poor conditions or overcrowding eg.
in some Asian families or ill health mould in the building eg leaking boilers); in education (possibly of reduced quality education and limited access to variety of books and equipment eg. internet); in motivation and ambition – a lack of motivation causing sadness to either parents, the child or both, possibly also a lack of motivation to learn etc. – Family / background – drugs or alcohol as well as abuse at home – there are obvious affects but can also include a financial strain from drug and alcohol abuse leading to other diet related issues or broken families.
Both sides, high-quality relationship might have a positive effects on the child i. e. lots of stimulation and parents making most of time available or bad relationship, negative effects on child development influence the emotional aspects. – Children’s personal choices – the company children keep – with potential of anti-social behaviour or early use of drugs eg cigarettes in upper elementary school or boy-/girlfriends which are more evident in young people than children.
Starting and finishing a relationship can be a huge influence on learning. etc – Children in care – not having a stable, loving warm environment as well as lacking reasons why they have been taken into care has a huge effect. – Education and extracurricular activities – many families are being part of the community and participating in activities eg tennis and so furthering and developing many skills. The flip side being those who don’t participate who are unable to or restricted finances don’t give them the opportunity potentially don’t develop as well as those, who have the opportunity.
pc[2. 3] Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice Several Theorists have given us the many different theories that we know of and use these days. Theories try to explain how young children develop intellectually, emotionally and physically. Often this is described as stages of development or patterns of development. These give us a framework for understanding the process of learning. Though working with just one framework may stop us from exploring other views.
The most important theory which influences the early years education in the UK is the sociocultural theory of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). Though there are more theories like the behavioural work of Skinner (1905-1990) he is rewarding positive behaviour and ignoring negative behaviour. This influences the work with children who have learning and behavioural difficulties. Jean Piaget’s (1896-1980) theories have gotten trendy again in the last few years as additional studies are done into his cognitive theory of schemas through which children progress in stages in their learning.
Their theories influenced the vertical and horizontal continuum that we have developed and use in school. In the 3 different year levels that I teach I am guided in the expectation of knowledge and skills that are to be expected at a certain stage in a child’s live. I would also take into account their culture and any issues; a child or young person may have educational needs but these may not be creating delayed development, for example their first language may not be English, therefore their lack of understanding may lie there; perhaps they need language lessons for students of English as a foreign language.
My role as a teacher and practitioner in early childhood is to involve appropriate interaction with learners by using a number of strategies eg. play, hands-on experience and language development to enable for learning to take place. By speaking clearly and simply and nodding or praising a child for getting a word, sentence or request correct is enough to encourage them to use the correct terms when they wish to communicate. Using Skinner’s theory in my daily teaching live. I give praise when children handle social interactions with good behaviour and so prove that I am happy and that what they have done is the correct way to behave.
Using Vygotsky’s theory in my daily teaching live. When I behave calmly and use quiet communication to settle any disagreements, children will copy this. Using Bandura’s theory in my daily teaching live. Children in care have less chance to make affirmative relationships with key figures. They are more vulnerable, having already experiences the negative experience of being separated from familiar figures. This can influence their ability to relate to others and evidence attachment problems/disorder.
This can lead to communication difficulties which involve showing emotions violently or inappropriately causing withdrawal and isolation. When children suffer from separation anxiety I go and spend time in the home class room and get to know then as they can get to know me. The child will get the potion to bring the teacher’s assistant as their key person to the first few lessons till they get used to moving to the different room for music.. Using Bowlby’s theory in my daily teaching live. John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth are the theorists that looked into attachment needs.
Any practitioner and also I need to be aware of their theory to be able to deal with attachment needs. B. F. Skinner’s theory was that if the main cares in a child’s life implemented behavioural modifications, the children would quickly learn the correct way to behave. All staff supports this by praising and rewarding good behaviour and giving time out and no attention to ‘naughty’ behaviour. In school we use a traffic light system which all teachers use and if a student moves ‘down’ their mark is moved down in the home room as well.
All teachers throughout the school use ‘diamond awards that can be given for any kind of positive reinforcement of good behaviour. I use them for students that help cleaning up, students sitting quietly, for very healthy food choices e. g. if they leave the chips in their lunchbox and eat the fruit first. However, we are aware that our behavioural modifications will only work effectively if parents apply them at home as well. For this we are having different parent evenings on different topics to ensure that we are on the same page.
Additionally Freud’s theory has not been scientifically agreed with but has assisted those working with children to recognize that there is a connection between our mind and our unconscious deeds. Erikson theory was founded on motivation and his modification on Freud’s theory was that persons had certain basic requirements which must be successfully met to allow them to attain their full developmental potential.
Encourage the children to show and deal with their real emotions, with the help of books, emotional flash cards and posters. By helping the children gain an understanding of emotions by reflecting on something that may have happened to them.
‘did you feel happy when you went swimming last week’ ‘were you sad when you lost you toy’ ‘were you angry when Tommy would not share’ ‘were you worried that you would be in trouble when you dropped the cup’ etc…… we aim to help the children identify the feelings attached to the emotion a practitioner can use the 3 elements of his personality structure to give weight to the need for positive early years experiences through provision that would support a child in becoming a balanced, well enough adjusted adult to manage the emotions associated with transition and emotional trauma.
In aiming high for children with an awareness of any development outcomes, goals or hopes it ensures that a setting can play its part in a child’s journey to adulthood. In current practice, children’s expected stages and patterns of development reflect this detail and provide ways for practitioners to evidence them. ‘Artists’: Children sing songs, make music and dance, and experiment with ways of changing them. They safely use and explore a variety of materials, tools and techniques, experimenting with colour, design, texture, form and function.
Children use what they have learnt about media and materials in original ways, thinking about uses and purposes. They represent their own ideas, thoughts and feelings through design and technology, art, music, dance, role-play and stories. Children know about similarities and differences in relation to places, objects, materials and living things. They talk about the features of their own immediate environment and how environments might vary from one another. They make observations of animals and plants and explain why some things occur, and talk about changes.
Research and explain how current practice is influenced by Theories of development include; Piaget – Intellectual, Freud – psychoanalytic, Maslow – Humanist, Bandura – Social Learning, Skinner – Operant Conditioning, Watson – Behaviourist. Also explain how you holistically use these theories to work together e. g. EYFS – Holistic approach to learning is known as social pedagogy The theorist whose theory is physical development is Arnold Gesell. His theory is that most physical skills cannot be taught but is programmed in our genetics, which means we will learn different physical skills when our body is ready to.
In our setting, we support this by encouraging children but not forcing them to develop a physical skill. We provide a soft, cushioned area so that children can develop themselves physically without risk of hurting themselves. The theorist who theory is language development is B. F. Skinner. His theory is that children use cognitive behavior when understanding and giving communication. They will use trial and error to get the right words out until they succeed. He believes that children observe adults and other children for the correct way to communicate and repeat the actions they have seen until they get it right.
We support this at nursery by speaking clearly and simply and nodding or praising a child for getting a word, sentence or request correct. This is to encourage them to use the correct terms when they wish to communicate. The theorist whose theory is intellectual development is Lev Vygotsky. His theory is that children learn new skills by being guided by cares and parents. An example of this is when a parent sings ’pat-a-cake’ to their child and helps them clap their hands until the child can clap their hands themselves.
He believes that every new scene or interaction is a learning experience to children that they must be guided through until they know how react correctly. staff supports this by giving support if children are having difficulty managing a particular task. We also give praise when children handle social interactions with good behavior to prove that we are happy and that what they have done is the correct way to behave. The theorist whose theory is Social Development is Albert Bandura. His theory is that children learn by observing how the main people in their life behave and imitating them.
People they will observe are parents/cares/siblings/friends/etc. A child will repeat the behavior they have seen if it is rewarded with attention or praise. Staff behave calmly and use quiet communication to settle any disagreements. Inappropriate behavior or language is not permitted, as children will copy this. The theorist whose theory is Emotional Development is John Bowlby. His theory is that early relationships with caregivers play a major role in child development and will influence how children react to social interactions with other people.
He believes that children who are securely attached to their main cares generally have high self esteem and will be able to enjoy intimate relationships where the ability to share feelings will develop and will seek out social support. We support this theory by easing children into nursery life slowly with visits that get longer and longer as the child becomes more comfortable. This is to prevent separation anxiety The theorist whose theory is Behavioral Development is B. F. Skinner.
His theory was that if the main cares in a child’s life implemented behavioral modifications, the children would quickly learn the correct way to behave. Staff support this by praising and rewarding good behavior and giving time out and no attention to naughty behavior. However, staffs are aware that our behavioral modifications will only work effectively if parents apply them at home as well i have done the 3 theorists jean piagats which i have to link with nowerdays practice i dont know what to put i have put for this theorist- early years plan activties ,regularly observe children and that they go by the eyfs.
for the second one i have done lev vygotsky but dont know how to to link him with practice and the last one i have done is john bowlby attachment for this one i put children have one keyworker who they are attach to. Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development, for example, you can see that the eyfs focuses on working closely with children, observing and planning for their development I. e Skinner theory was of behaviour, (ignoring bad behaviour and rewarding good) so just think of a reflective account that you could have done to promote this….
could be that you witnessed a child being naughty (not major) but you ignored it.. they they could have done a good piece of work so were rewarded in praise or a sticker. The physical development area is influenced by the theory by theorist Arnold Gesell. His theory states the majority of physical skills we gain is not taught but is programmed in our genetics a child that is having difficulties settling in may have attachment needs. Think of 3 theorists, explain what each one has said. Then link this to the relevant part of the EYFS ?
Quote from card •Skinner (1905~1990) Skinner is a behaviour theorist; he declared that rewarding positive behaviour and ignoring bad behaviour would influence the work with children who have learning or behavioural issues e. g. in class some chosen students may receive the ‘best behaved of the day’ sticker for their chart, this will encourage the children’s good behaviour in hope that they will receive rewards next time.
•Skinner’s development through positive reward can be found on card 4. 3 where it says: ‘Children will more easily make connections between things they’ve learned if the environment encourages them to do so’ (card 4. 3 The Early Years Foundation Stage Principles into Practice cards, Every Child Matters – Change For Children, by the department for children, schools and families UK 2007)
•Albert Bandura (born 1925); Bandura is a social learning theorist; he believed that people imitate and copy through observation. His hypothesis is often referred to as a link between behavioural and cognitive learning as it includes memory, attention and motivation. E. g. when children act in role play they impersonate and copy adult behaviour and repeat phrases their parent or carer would use.
They may also create situations like going shopping, doing the ironing and carrying out other household chores that they have observed being done in their home. •Bandura’s development through copying and observing. No matter of diversity of the individual every child is respected and valued. This influences the EYFS shown on Card 1. 2. ‘All children have a need to develop, which is helped by exploring and discovering the people and things around them.
’ (card 1. 2 The Early Years Foundation Stage Principles into Practice cards, Every Child Matters – Change For Children, by the department for children, schools and families UK 2007) •Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934); Vygotsky is a social developmental theorist; Vygotsky’s theories stress the fundamental role of social interaction. He believed strongly that community plays a central role in the process of “making meaning”. Learning is a indispensable and universal aspect of the process of development.
Vygotsky believed that young children are interested and actively involved in their own learning and the discovery and development of new understanding. But he also highlighted social contributions to the progression of development. Vygotsky believed that language develops from social interactions, for communication purposes.
•Vygotsky’s development through being with others and hands on experience influences the EYFS shown on Card 1. 1 ‘Children learn better by doing, and by doing things with other people who are more competent, rather than just by being told. ’ (card 1. 1 The Early Years Foundation Stage Principles into Practice cards, Every Child Matters – Change For Children, by the department for children, schools and families UK 2007)
•Vygotsky’s development through social interaction influences the EYFS shown on Card 4. 1 ‘Play with peers is important for children’s development’ (card 4. 1 The Early Years Foundation Stage Principles into Practice cards, Every Child Matters – Change For Children, by the department for children, schools and families UK 2007) It is significant to look at various theorists and keep ourselves informed of new findings to best sever each child as a whole in my class.