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DVTLeg pain in one leg, leg tenderness in one leg, swelling and increased warmth in one leg, redness of the skin in one leg are some of the symptoms of DVT.DVT treatmentDVT Treatment is treatment for blood clotting. Anticoagulant therapy is adopted: direct and indirect. The direct is heparin is being used. The main function of heparin is to stop blood clotting.

It is administered intravenously.  It increases the anticoagulation property of the blood. Besides, warfarin administered orally is used.

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But warfarin is slow in starting its work.Hence heparin is continued along with warfarin for at least 24 hours. Warfarin is to be continued for at least 6 months. The function of warfarin is to increase the time taken for blood clotting, known as prothrombin time (PT). The ability of blood to clot properly is measured by means of a system called International Normalized ratio (INR).

Warfarin is adjusted in such a way that INR is between 2 & 3.VARICOSE VEINSVaricose veins are enlarged veins that can be flesh colored, dark purple or blue. They often look like cords and appear twisted and bulging. They are swollen and raised above the surface of the skin. Varicose veins are commonly found on the backs of the calves or on the inside of the leg.The symptoms include: Aching pain, easily tired legs, Leg heaviness, Swelling in the legs, Darkening of the skin, Numbness in the legs, and Itching or irritated rash in the legsSPIDER VEINSSpider veins are similar to varicose veins, but they are smaller.

They are often red or blue and are closer to the surface of the skin than varicose veins. They can look like tree branches or spider webs with their short jagged lines. Spider veins can be found on the legs and face. They can cover either a very small or very large area of skin.TREATMENT OF VARICOSE AND SPIDER VEINSSclerotherapy:  This is the most common treatment for both spider veins and varicose veins. The doctor injects a solution into the vein that causes the vein walls to swell, stick together, and seal shut. This stops the flow of blood and the vein turns into scar tissue.

In a few weeks, the vein should fade. The same vein may need to be treated more than once. The treated vein can also become inflamed or develop lumps of clotted blood.Laser surgery: New technology in laser treatments can effectively treat spider veins in the legs. Laser surgery sends very strong bursts of light onto the vein. This can makes the vein slowly fade and disappear. Lasers are very direct and accurate. So the proper laser controlled by a skilled doctor will usually only damage the area being treated.

Most skin types and colors can be safely treated with lasers.Endovenous Techniques (radiofrequency and laser): These methods for treating the deeper varicose veins of the legs (the saphenous veins) have been a huge breakthrough. They have replaced surgery for the vast majority of patients with severe varicose veins. This technique is not very invasive and can be done in a doctor’s office.

Surgical Ligation and Stripping – With this treatment, problematic veins are tied shut and completely removed from the leg. Removing the veins does not affect the circulation of blood in the leg. Veins deeper in the leg take care of the larger volumes of blood. Most varicose veins removed by surgery are surface veins and collect blood only from the skin. This surgery requires either local or general anesthesia and must be done in an operating room on an outpatient basis.ANEURYSMThis is an abnormal enlargement of the tunica media of an artery.Symptoms of aneurysm include compression syndrome of surrounding structures, swelling, with or without pain, peripheral vascular symptoms, pulsatile masses, and expansile mass.

Treatment modality is directed at reducing the mass. This is by surgical intervention with use of vascular stents and ligation.ATHEROSCLEROSISIt is simply thickening of the wall of an artery due to formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the tunica intima of an artery. It can be in large, muscular or small arteries.Symptoms depend on associated presentation of ischemia such as stroke [brain], myocardial infarction [heart], gangrene [lower limbs], and hypertension-related diseases.Treatment starts with behavioral changes with respect to fat and cholesterol consumption, conservative management of symptom as they present in the patient.

Others include statin therapy, fibrinolytic therapy, coronary bypass and use of beta blockers.

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