Assessments based on curriculum tend to deliver consistent, effective results for a given curriculum design. In this lesson we will discuss the design of curriculum-based assessments and how to use them.
What are Curriculum-Based Assessments?
It might as well be written in Swahili.
John stares at the test, realizing that there is nothing familiar about the material at all. Where is Ms. Grimes getting these questions? If only his teacher used curriculum-based assessments!Assessments measure the development of the knowledge and skills in your students. They indicate both your students’ progress and how well your curriculum is performing in producing the desired knowledge level in your students. There are many kinds of assessments.
What you use depends on your subject, your preferences, your particular group of students, and the requirements of your administration.Curriculum-based assessments (CBA) are specifically designed around and based upon the ways you’re trying to teach. They measure your students’ progress in learning your materials. Every test is filled with experiences from your instruction, such as
- video sections
- selected readings
- representative models
Designing and Using CBA Instruments
Although there are many forms of CBA instruments, they will generally be:
- Based on your curriculum. CBA instruments are always taken directly from the instructional materials.
Sections of reading, math from the examples, maps from the geography text, everything that appears on a CBA instrument should be familiar to your student.
- Learning exercises. Each CBA probe should provide learning opportunities–your students will grow while they are being assessed.
Especially important with special needs students, your assessment items need to overlap, giving the students multiple chances (on different days) to get items right. This helps students avoid giving inaccurate CBA results because of a bad day, and also provides a reinforcement of key information.
- Data-oriented. CBA instruments provide specific, quantitative data that you can use to develop an objective view of the student’s progress in a given program. They offer a broader information base, since they involve multiple assessments over the same materials.
The assessments should provide the information you as a teacher need to fine-tune your curricular approach for the students.
When you’re designing CBA instruments, you will go over the materials the students have covered (or will cover), and establish the points from the instructional materials that you will use as a basis for each probe (a small assessment used to measure progress in a specific area).For example, you might be setting up CBA instruments to monitor the progress of your English literature class.
You’re reading The Tempest, and you want to emphasize reading comprehension, underlying meanings, and literary structure. You would take key sections from the text and create your probes, which are generally given over multiple days.Each probe contains a brief array of activities, sorted by increasing level of difficulty. For example, you might:
- Have each student read aloud a section of the assigned work (perhaps Gonzalo’s joke about the boatswain’s date with the gallows in the first act). Following along in your own copy, you can mark errors in the reading or in the comprehension, which will later be used for data.
- Ask for a one-sentence interpretation of the section (what was Gonzalo really saying?), or have the student select a most-accurate interpretation from a set of choices.
- Have your student briefly describe or identify the structure of the passage. What are the mechanical methods being used to convey the information?
As you’re setting up an assessment like the one described above, you would want to keep the key questions in mind:
- Is it based on your curriculum?
- Does it advance your students’ learning while it’s assessing capabilities?
- Is there complete overlap with previous and upcoming probes?
- Can data be collected from the graded result?
- Will it give feedback direction for your curriculum?
You will generally design multiple probes to cover the same array of information, so you would give the student a second chance to read a section of the same work, give an interpretation, and describe structure on a separate day. This gives the student a chance to make up for a bad day and makes the assessment data more representative.The overlap between the materials you’re using and the assessments you give should be nearly complete.
- Each key item should show up in at least three of the probes.
- Each probe should reinforce knowledge taken directly from the curriculum.
- Each array of tasks should show up at least three times.
During your school year, you will generally be giving your probes each week to all of your students, collecting the data, and watching the progress of your students. In a CBA approach, you are looking for success points and watching for acquired knowledge and skills.When you see a weak spot, you change your approach for that section.
Perhaps a student is given a different kind of activity, or the class if offered a new set of supporting materials. The idea is to monitor student progress and use the results as feedback for your curriculum development process. You are constantly re-evaluating your own approach, based on the results of your probes.CBA instruments may be used in concert with standards-based assessments or section-based assessments. You might give chapter tests and quizzes for grades, but use ongoing CBA probes for your feedback system.
Assessments measure the student’s progress in the curriculum, and is a measure both of how well the student is doing and how well the curriculum is performing. Curriculum-based assessments are specifically designed to the particular curriculum being offered, to advance learning, to overlap completely, and to offer objective data for curricular tuning and/or revamp.
CBA probes are small, overlapping assessment instruments that measure a student’s progress on a regular basis. The CBA approach provides an effective way to ensure that the students are reacting well to a particular curriculum.