Since revelations about players using such substances as steroids and human growth hormones have come o light, the time period stretching from the late 1 9805 and into the turn of the century has become known as the Steroid Era. Early whispers, rumblings, and rumors of illegal use of PEED were proven to be true when, in 2002, Ken Cinematic became the first professional baseball player to admit that he had used steroids; Cinematic had used them for several seasons beginning in 1996, when he was the National League’s Most Valuable Player.
Soon many observers became suspicious of not only the enormous size of many other layers, but also of the astronomical offensive numbers those men were achieving. It was not until the U. S. Congress decided to intervene that charges of steroid usage in baseball began to command bold headlines and credibility across the nation. On March 1 7, 2005, several top players, including Mark McGuire and Palmer, testified before a congressional panel.McGuire, who had seven years earlier broken one of baseball’s most venerated records-?for the most home runs hit in a season-?repeatedly refused to answer congress members’ questions about whether he had used steroids. Palmer emphatically stated he had done nothing wrong as he dramatically pointed his finger at the congressional panel and avowed, “l have never used steroids.
Period. ” On August 1, 2005, he was suspended for using steroids.On February 7, 2009, Sports Illustrated revealed that Rodriguez “was one of 104 players who tested positive for steroids in 2003,” the first year baseball tested players for drugs. While the results of the testing, completed “on a survey basis,” were to be anonymous and were to carry no penalty for guilty arties, federal agents “seized all of the positive urine samples,” and eventually the results of Rodriguez testing were leaked to Sports Illustrated.Two days later, Rodriguez told ESP. that he had used banned substances from 2001 to 2003, the first three years of his ID-year, $252 million contract with the Texas Rangers (before he moved to his current team, the New York Yankees)-?a period over which he hit a staggering average of 52 home runs each year.
“Back then it was a different culture,” Rodriguez told ESP.. “It was very loose. I was young. I was stupid. He added that he had been motivated to take steroids “to prove to everyone that I was worth being one Of the greatest players of all time. Rodriguez likely faces no repercussions from baseball officials for his steroid use because while steroids have been considered to be illegal in baseball since 1 991, no penalty was attached to such usage until 2004, the year after Rodriguez says he quit using steroids.
Meanwhile, the head of baseball’s players union, Donald Fear, toured spring training camps on February 23 and commented that he believes baseball, after the 2003 survey which ultimately led to the unearthing of Rodriguez failed drug test, has “fixed the problem,” ESP. reports(Stewart 2009).Recent evidence suggests that steroid abuse among adolescents is on the rise. The 1 999 Monitoring the Future study, a NADIA-funded survey of drug abuse among adolescents in middle and high schools across the United States, estimated that 2. 7 percent of 8th- and 10th-graders and 2. 9 percent of 1 20th- graders had taken anabolic steroids at least once in their lives. For 10th graders, that is a significant increase from 1 998, when 2.
Percent of 10th- graders said they had taken anabolic steroids at least once.For all three grades, the 1 999 levels represent a significant increase from 1 991 , the first year that data on steroid abuse were collected from the younger students. In that year, 1. 9 percent of 8th-graders, 1. 8 percent of 10th-graders, and 2. 1 percent Of 1 20th-graders reported that they had taken anabolic steroids at least once. Few data exist on the extent of steroid abuse by adults.
It has been estimated that hundreds of thousands of people aged 18 and older abuse anabolic steroids at least once a year.