What are the racial categories in the US? A. White, Native American, Asian, Hispanic, Black b. Mixed falls under ‘other’ on forms/applications (graph population: down below) c. How will it change culture? Nation will change with increase in minority (example: politics) d.
Minority: definition- not white (or ‘lesser population’) ii. Ethnicity: Cultural heritage shared with and also sharing common ancestral origin (language and religion) iii. Nationality: Group of people make legit and independent state share common geographical location (origin, history, and often language) e. Population of US g.Knowledge in cross-cultural psychology i. Scientific: Facts based on research ii.
Popular Beliefs: Stereotypes (example: religion, race); not fact iii. Ideological & Value-based knowledge: Tradition, beliefs set on world, wrong/right, purpose of life iv. Legal Knowledge: Anything turned into law v.
Ideological and Legal Knowledge are linked: wears wrong/right morals turned into law vi. Impact of knowledge in cross cultural psychology: Knowledge- popular, ideologically, scientific, legal culture individual behavior (mixture, not strictly bound to any forms mind. Behavior) (ex: theft) h. Defining Culture i.Traditional Culture: based largely on beliefs, rules, symbols and principles (ex: church- Christian Sundays, Catholicism) ii. Non-traditional Culture: based largely on modern beliefs, rules, symbols and principles; within 1-2 generations (ex: LEGIT newer than Catholicism) iii. i. Individual behavior (Theft Example) i.
Individualism: concern of welfare for self and family (High) ii. Collectivism: concern of welfare for community (opposite of Individualism) (Low) iii. Power distance: acceptance Of power distributed unevenly in society (Low) iv.
Uncertainty avoidance: how one feels when uncomfortable about not knowing something (High) v.Uncertainty orientation: how you handle not knowing (High) vi. ‘h’ I Power Relationships I Subordination Harmony I Achievement Equality Vertical Ill Oriented Horizontally Oriented (ex: workplace, individual) (ex: workplace, family) Try to balance for Individual Behavior j. Cultural Syndromes: definition- pattern of shared attitudes, beliefs, values, etc. That is organized around a theme and shared by people of a culture i.
Examples: 1 . Tightness: rules and norms applied to social situations and sanctions applied to those who violate norms (ex: girl code) 2.Cultural complexity: number of different cultural elements; activity and passivity (thought v. Action) 3.
Honor: attitudes and practices that support aggressive actions in the name of self protection k. Approaches to cross-cultural psychology i. Evolutionary: how does evolution effect human behavior, culture is just a form Of existence that provides for fundamental human needs and subsequent goals ii.
Cultural: you put something In and get something else out; reciprocal interaction between individual and environment iii. Sociological: broad social structures that influence society (ex: gender roles) iv.Integrative approach Psychological phenomena studied in C Psych A activity: individual’s goal directed v I interaction with environment resources and access to them 1/27/15 culture Methodology’ of Cross-Cultural Psychology Strategies of cross-cultural research Application-oriented strategy: attempt to establish applicability of findings from one country to another Comparatives strategy: focus on statistical similarities and differences in a sample of cultures Equivalence Major concern in C study; methods selected for study measure honeymoon between cultures (ex: method a is used to study anxiety in France and in Italy (testing) method b is used to study anxiety in India and Pakistan (survey) z/ the results will likely be incompatible due to the equivalency problem) Multi-step approach to cross-cultural psychology Step 1 .
Describe a problem (an issue) you have to investigate. Review the scholarly literature on the topic. You may use popular journals, magazines, and newspapers for additional references. Check available sources in the language of the country or countries you examine, if necessary. Step 2. Identify your research goal, i. . Explain what you want to achieve as a result.
Then introduce one or several hypotheses for your study. You can use at least two strategies; (a) inductive: you collect data first, and then make a conclusion about the studied samples; (b) deductive: you select a hypothesis first; then you collect data to demonstrate or reject the selected hypothesis. Step 3.Identify and describe the research sample of your study: groups of people, newspaper reports, children’s drawings, texts, etc. Step 4. Choose or design a methodology for your project. Make sure that your method does not violate research ethics. Refer to your local Human Subjects Review Board for approval.
Put together a schedule (time-table) for your project. Step 5. Conduct a pilot study, a preliminary exploration of the method to see how your methodology works and whether there are any obstacles to data collection. Step 6. Collect research data. Step 7.
Interpret you data using statistical procedures. Step 8. Present the results and analyze them critically in a report. Step 9.In your report, suggest where and how your data should be or could be used (i. E.
, in education, counseling advertisement, conflict-resolution, etc. ) Representative sample selection Convenience sampling: popular, but limited; some groups are more likely to receive more attention than others (ex: church) -cannot generalize, not reliable Systematic sampling: taking samples of a nation or ethnic samples according to a theory; sampling to answer a question -cannot generalize, not reliable Random sampling: large sample of countries or groups is randomly chosen -best Estimates derived from large samples are more reliable than estimates derived from small samples.Sample Selection Estimates derived from large samples are more reliable than estimates from mall samples However, this is often forgotten and we may be prone to commit the error of parallelizing from too small a sample (ex: 7/1 0 v. 60/100 more people = reliable) Basic methods of cross-cultural research Observation Scientific vs..
Unscientific Observation Non-scientific observation is often spontaneous and biased, has impact on findings (ex: SPIFF, tool for observing behavior in context of marital conflict; code teach uses (culture differences), Goodman and Krakow 1989) Survey Methods Definition: most common, researcher asks subject opinions regarding a reticular topic or issue; Adrian White used response of eek people worldwide to map out subjective well being -quote Obstacles Test translation How does a test translate in multiple languages? N-class example: 3 bilingual volunteers translate the words- sexual harassment, shame/embarrassment, and contempt; interpret differently, aka language barriers Cultural Applicability Do theories and similarities mean the same cross-culturally? Example: doctor, law,her, and priest at neighbor’s house, what is going on? Death -> could a child from a non-western culture understand this question? No. Context and ultra: translation, situation Halloween, pregnant Cultural Bias How does one’s cultural influence response style? Example: self assessment -> 3 groups classify themselves as hardest working: Ethiopia, zombie, Tanzania & 3 classify selves as least hard working: Chinese, Korean, Japanese. Why? Sources, modesty, morals: don’t need individual success, CULTURE Experimental studies dependent variable: something you study independent variable: conditions controlled by the experimenter (rare in C studies) Content-analysis research method that organizes & summarizes both the manifest (said or Ritter) & the latent (meaning) content of communication conducted by examining transcripts of conversations Comparative phenomena Absolutist approach (aka “universalism” approach) argues that psychology phenomena are basically the same in all cultures; tendency to use the standards of one group as the norms for viewing other groups Relativist approach human behavior can be understood only within the context of the culture in which it occurs; should study an individual’s psychology from within his culture Beware of cultural dichotomies fewer differences between two dissimilar groups or more differences teens two similar groups Critical thin king about similarities and differences without comparisons, there is no C psych when we compare, we look for either similarities or differences between two variables (ex: test scores in two ethnicities) when comparing two, initially the match with respect to mutual similarities, but eventual fork in the road similar * dissimilar * = , point of critical distinction (PC) Avoiding bias of generalizations Ask yourself: what were the site of representation of the chosen samples in this project? Was the method chosen for the study adequate in different cultural settings? Was it translated properly? Are the data convincing?Are there any factors that could have affected the outcome that were not taken into consideration in this study? Discussion: Affirmative Action Policies are those in which an institution or organization actively engages in efforts to improve opportunities for historically excluded groups in American society Outcome of sass’s Civil Rights Movement, intended to provide equal opportunities for members of minority groups and women in education and employment (initially founded for African Americans) PROS: More than just admission policy: improves education, encourages underprivileged kids to go to college, campus support programs to improve academic success Necessary to compensate for centuries of oppression.
Advocates supports notion of competition between students based on merit and argues that affirmative action compensates for economic disparities Diversity in higher education provides an education advantage for all AGAINST: Unconstitutional (14th amendment already accomplishes this) Policies lower standards and make students less accountable Policies do not always help economically disadvantaged students; study found that affirmative action helps upper/middle class minorities Arguments hat are not a part of Affirmative Action: Only serves to amplify racial prejudice (no correlation of skin color and intelligencer therefore no need for affirmative action) Quotas are contrary to American dream, whoever works hardest should get the job 02/03/15 Lesson 1: Thinking about Thinking Metrifications act Why would you want Thinking is prone to bias, = Today’s as antidotes to thinking an antidote to thinking? Implicitly, rigidity, and sloppiness Lesson Critical thinking acts as an antidote to biased, lazy, or simplistic thinking Evaluative Bias of Language – to describe is to prescribe Is the distinction between objective description and subjective evaluation a clear one? The answer, in the vast majority of cases, is no, words both describe and evaluate Our use of any particular term serves not only to describe, but also to prescribe what is desirable or undesirable to us. Hot vs..
Cold example For material substances, both terms refer to temp: ‘That liquid is very cold,” or “That liquid is very hot. ” When we use the same terms to describe an individual, however, they take on different connotations. Subjective: How you experience cold weather without a coat vs.. Someone that has a coatObjective: something that you are describing without your own bias Antidotes Remember that descriptions, especially concerning personality characteristics, can never be entirely objective, impartial or neutral Become aware of your own personal values and biases, and how these influence the language that you use Avoid presenting your value judgment’s as objective reflections of truth.
Recognize how other people’s use of language reveals their own values and biases (sometimes we don’t tap into this until we are already in an argument with someone else) Dichotomous and continuous variables Some phenomena may be divided (or bifurcated) into two mutually exclusive or contradictory categories. These types of phenomena are dichotomous variables The lights are either on or off Other phenomena, by contrast, consist of a theoretically infinite number of points lying on a spectrum Feminine-Masculine Light switch vs.. Schism Antidotes Learn to differentiate between variables that are dichotomous and those that are continuous Remember that most person-relate phenomena-?such as traits, attitudes and beliefs-?lie along a continuum When making cross- cultural comparisons, try to avoid artificial or false dichotomies. Collectivism and traditionalism are continuous variables. Similarity-uniqueness paradox You can always find a way that something is similar or unique Nationality, language, religion, culture example When comparing and contrasting any two phenomena ask yourself “In what ways are they similar? And “In what ways are they different? ” Before beginning our evaluation, ask yourself “What is the purpose of this analysis? ‘ Asking this question will help you to choose the most appropriate and relevant dimensions and sorting variables Carefully and judiciously select the dimension on which you will evaluate various phenomena.Recognize that the dimensions you select will ultimately determine the degree of “similarity’ or “uniqueness” displayed between the two phenomena Despite what may appear to be an overwhelming number of similarities between two events, always search for and take into account their differences; conversely, regardless of what may seem to be a total absence of commonalities between two events, search for and take into account their similarities Do not allow yourself to be swayed by individuals who maintain that “These events are exactly the same” or “You can’t compare these events because the have absolutely nothing in common. Barnum effect A personality description about a particular individual or group that is true Of practically all human beings; in other words, it is a general statement that has “a little something for everybody” Refers to people’s willingness to accept the validity of such overly inclusive and generic appraisals Refers to “One-Size- Fits-AY'” descriptions Barnum statement Barnum effect Learn to differentiate Barnum statements from person and group specific descriptions and interpretations Be aware of the limited utility inherent in Barnum statements.
Specifically, remember that although b stats have validity bout people in general, they fail to reveal anything distinctive about any given individual or calculators groups Whenever feasible and appropriate, make it a point to reduce the Barnum effect by qualifying personality descriptions and interpretations in terms of their magnitude or degree. Assimilation bias: one of the most fundamental and pervasive of all human psychological activities is the propensity to categorize Assimilation Bias cycle: What happens when we come across information that is discrepant from our preconceptions? Put another way, what do we do when there is a clash between the data and our schema? Swiss psychologist Jean Pigged identified two complementary processes that we utilize in such situations accommodation and assimilation Both of these responses are integral components of cognitive development and constitute the means by which we adapt to our environment and construct our reality.Schemas – propensity to categorize People appear to possess an innate drive to classify, organize, systematize, group, subgroup and otherwise structure the world around them We can conceptualize all such categories as mental representations or schemas A schema is a cognitive structure that organizes our knowledge, beliefs. And past experiences thereby providing a framework for understanding new events and future experiences Accommodation- refers to the process wherein we modify our schema to fit the data. In other words, we change our preexisting beliefs so that they make room for (i. E.
, “accommodate”) new information Assimilation- by contrast, means to modify the data to fit our schema.Here, we incorporate new information into our preexisting beliefs- even if it means distorting the information itself. This bias manifests itself in a wide variety of forms and contexts It leads us to rely on vivid but not serially appropriate info to fill in gaps in our knowledge with schema- consistent, but erroneous, info Schemas distort our perceptions of reality to make them consistent with what we already believe As such, the assimilation bias represents a significant obstacle to clear thinking and effective problem solving In the viewing the world through “schema-colored glasses,” we subject virtually all the incoming information to varying degrees of distortion, misinterpretation and invalidation.Antidotes: Do not underestimate the extent to which your prior beliefs, knowledge and expectancies (schemata) can affect your current experience Try to become as aware as possible of schemata that are important to you; awareness of schemata increases your ability to modify them Experiment with temp lowering or altering your “perceptual filters” or “schema-colored glasses” by attempting to understand someone else’s perceptions and experience Learn to differentiate your use of assimilation versus accommodation. Beware of the general tendency to assimilate rather than to accommodate. Prod yourself to accommodate when, out of habit, reflex, or just sheer laziness you loud typically be inclined to automatically assimilate. Availability bias When estimating the frequency/probability of an event, remind yourself not to reach a conclusion based solely on the ease or speed with which relevant instances can be retrieved from your memory Take anecdotal evidence not with a grain of salt but with several large shakers of salt.
Although personal testimonies and vivid cases may be very persuasive, they are not inherently trustworthy indicators of fact Make a conscious effort, whenever feasible, to seek out and utilize base-rate information and other pertinent statistical data. i. E.
, Google) Remember that the best basis for drawing valid generalizations is from a representative sample of relevant cases. Availability bias Give your best estimates for the following questions What are the odds of sustaining a fatal accident traveling by car as compared with traveling by commercial airplane? People are nearly 1 00 times more likely to die in a car accident than in a commercial plane accident.Based on our tendency to underused, discount or even ignore relevant base-rate information (data about the actual frequency of events in a particular group) ND other abstract statistical facts in factor of more salient and concrete but usually less reliable anecdotal evidence As a consequence personal testimonies skew our judgment. Correlation does not prove causation A correlation is a statement about the relationship or association between two (or more) variables.
Correlations thus enable us to make predictions from one variable or event to another That is, if two events are correlated (or “caperer”), then the presence of one event provides us with information about the other event A correlation does not, however, necessarily establish a causal relationship between the variables.In other words, causation cannot be proven simply by virtue of a correlation or co-appearance As ice cream rates increase, the rate of drowning deaths increase drastically ->therefore ice cream consumption causes drowning (summertime) Since the ass both the atmospheric CA levels and obesity level have increased sharply therefore atmospheric CA causes obesity (cars) People who eat oatmeal for breakfast are more likely to die of a heart attack than people who eat cold cereal (more Old people eat oatmeal everyday compared to younger kids) Antidotes Remember that a correlation or Copernican is not, in itself, proof of causation Keep in mind that correlations enable us to make predictions from one event to another; they do not, however, provide explanations as to why the events are related When a correlation is observed, consider all possible pathways and directions of causation. For example, if event A and event B are correlated. Does A cause B? Do A and B cause each other? Does C cause A and B? 02/10/15 Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Consciousness Sensation & Perception Vision Hearing Touch Taste Smell Key DefinitionsSensation: process by which receptor cells are stimulated and transmit their info to higher brain centers Perception: process that organizes various sensations into meaningful patterns Absolute threshold: the minimum amount of physical energy needed for an individual to notice a stimulus Difference threshold: the lowest level of stimulation required to sense that a change in the stimulation has occurred Sensory adaptation: the tendency of the sensory system to respond less to stimuli that continue without change (breeze commercial example) Perceptual set: environmental experiences rate perceptual expectations; These expectations, known as perceptual set, make particular interpretations likely to occur and increase both the speed and efficiency of the perceptual process Environmental conditions, as well as activities and experiences, determine culture-related differences and similarities in sensation and perception; Individuals learn to pay attention to certain stimuli, ignore others, and develop particular cognitive preferences fool some culture-related images, smells, tastes, etc.