This lesson will seek to explain modern migration. In doing so, it will highlight labor migration, urbanization, and forced migration.
It will also highlight the term diaspora.
Although humans have been moving from place to place since the creation of time, the 19th and 20th centuries saw an explosion in human migration. This explosion of sorts will be the topic of today’s lesson as we discuss modern migration patterns, specifically discussing the concept of forced migration.To begin, migration is simply defined as the movement from one place to another. It’s a farmer putting down his plow and moving from Ireland to America, and it’s a German Jew fleeing his country in the World War II era. With these examples, historians usually cite three concepts that have greatly affected modern migration.
They are labor migration, urbanization, and forced migration.
We’ll kick things off with labor migration. Labor migration can be quickly explained as people moving from their home regions in search of employment.
When discussing labor migration, the example usually given is the massive influx of Irish immigrants into the United States during the 19th century. Being devastated by the infamous Potato Famine, the farmers of Ireland came to America’s shores looking for employment in the towns and cities of the more industrialized United States.Interestingly, the U.
S. also experienced considerable internal 20th century movement due to labor migration. For example, it’s estimated that millions of African Americans left the poorer areas of the rural Southern U.S.
in search of the higher paying, urban jobs of the Northeast.
With this mention of cities, we come to our next concept that affected modern migration, urbanization. As industry started replacing agriculture, the industrialization of the world’s economy led to urbanization, the movement from rural to urban areas. In other words, millions of agriculturalists left their farms and moved to the cities in search of work.
According to those who study migration, the process of urbanization had its origin in Britain and then spread throughout the world.
Leaving urbanization, we come to our last concept, forced migration. Forced migration is the process in which people are coerced away from their home regions. Unlike labor migration and urbanization, forced migration is not considered voluntary.
On the contrary, it’s often necessary for survival. Probably one of the most famous, yet horribly shameful, modern examples of forced migration occurred as Jews fled Nazi Germany.Often referred to as a diaspora, or a large people group who move from their homeland to another area of the world, many of these Jews relocated to modern day Israel, which in turn caused the forced migration of many Palestinian people. Adding to this, forced migration occurred heavily following World War II.For instance, after the war, many Eastern European ethnic groups – for instance millions of Estonian, Ukrainian, and Polish people – were forced out of Western Europe, pushing them further into the former Soviet Union. Leaving Europe and turning our eyes toward Asia, the mid-20th century saw forced migration occur in India and Pakistan as religious wars between Hindus and Muslims saw thousands upon thousands of people killed while others fled for their lives.
Migration is defined as movement from one place to another.
When discussing modern human migration, many cite labor migration, urbanization, and forced migration as main catalysts.Labor migration is defined as people moving from their home regions in search of employment. One of the best examples of modern labor migration was the huge influx of Irish immigrants into the US after the famous Potato Famine devastated their homelands.Urbanization is the movement from rural to urban areas.
Believed to have begun in Britain, urbanization occurred across the globe as the global economy moved from one of agriculture to industrialization.Forced migration is the process in which people are coerced away from their home regions. Forced migration is not voluntary. As people leave an area due to forced migration, they are often referred to by the word diaspora, which is a large people group who move from their homeland to another area of the world.
Your goal when you complete this lesson should be to:
- Define migration
- Recognize what labor migration is
- Explain urbanization
- Discuss examples of forced migration