In this lesson, you will learn the definition of colloids. There will be examples provided to assist you with your understanding of the topic. Also, several types of colloid solutions are provided.
What is a Colloid?
Colloids are important in both the natural environment and for manufactured products. A colloid is mixture where at least two types of substances are placed together.
The substances, also called particles do not change; each substance retains its own properties. They do not settle out of the mixture and cannot be seen.
Background Information on Solutions
To understand more about what colloids are and aren’t, it helps to first know a little more about two other types of mixtures: solutions and suspensions. A solution is made up of particles or solutes and a solvent.
The solvent part of the solution is usually a liquid, but can be a gas. The particles are atoms, ions, or molecules that are very small in diameter.Suspensions are also made up of particles and a solvent; however, its particles are larger than those found in a solution. The particles in a suspension can be distributed throughout the suspension evenly by shaking the mixture. However, the particles in a suspension do not remain distributed throughout the suspension – they will settle out.Have you ever had a recipe that calls for mixing water and oil together? What happens? The water settles to the bottom and the oil rises to the top. You can mix them together, but in a few seconds after you stop mixing the oil will rise to the top again.
This is an example of suspension.A colloid mixture has particles that are not as small as a solution and not as large as a suspension. The particles are intermediate in size. What makes the colloid mixture unique is that the particles are assorted throughout pretty evenly and they stay that way.Think of a solution as grade school, a colloid mixture as intermediate school, and a suspension as high school. The particles get larger as we move up the list of mixtures, just as students get larger in each school.
So, how can you tell the difference between a solution, a suspension, and a colloid mixture?
Types and Examples
It is easy to tell the difference between a suspension and a colloid mixture. As stated earlier, the suspension, when mixed, will combine. But when mixing is stopped, the particles separate out. Remember the oil and water example?So how can you tell if you have a solution or a colloid mixture? You can use the Tyndall effect, a test that can tell if you have a colloid mixture. If you have two glass beakers, you place the solution in one and the colloid mixture in another. Then, shine a light through both beakers. The light that passes through the solution will not be visible because the particles are so small.
However, the light will be reflected off the larger particles of a colloid mixture. So you will be able to see the light.To picture this more clearly, imagine that you are driving on a foggy night. What happens when you turn your headlights on? The water droplets scatter the light, making the headlight beams visible. That means one example of a colloid mixture is fog.Colloid mixtures can be solid, liquid, or gas. Examples include butter, milk, and fog.
There are actually eight types of colloid mixtures. They are usually described by the original states (solid, liquid, or gas). Let’s go over a few types. First will come the name, then the greatest amount of medium in the colloid mixture followed by the lesser amount of medium followed by examples of each.
- Solid sols have solids in the colloid mixture. Examples include pearls and opals.
- Gels have solids and liquids, and examples are butter and jelly.
- Sold foams have solids and gases, and examples are marshmallows and Styrofoam.
- Sols have liquids and solids, and examples are paint, ink, and detergent.
- Emulsions have liquids as the greater amount of medium in the colloid mixture and as the lesser amount, and examples are hand lotion, mayonnaise, and milk.
- Foams have liquid and gas, and examples are shaving lather and whipped cream.
- Solid aerosols have gas and solids, and examples are smoke and dust.
- Aerosols have gas and liquids, and examples are insecticide spray and fog.
Have you noticed in the list that there is only one type that does not have gas as the greatest and lesser medium amount in the type? That is because it is not possible to do either in the natural world or manmade.
There are three types of mixtures that were described in this lesson, but the focus was on colloid mixtures. A colloid mixture contains at least two particles that can be solid, liquid, or gas. The particles of a colloid mixture are intermediate in size when compared to the particles of a solution or a suspension – remember the example of grade school, intermediate school, and high school students. To identify a colloid mixture from a solution, you can use the Tyndall effect.
This is where you pass a light through the mixture. If the light bounces off the particles, you will see the light shine through and you have a colloid mixture.
- Colloid Mixture: A colloid mixture contains at least two particles that may be gas, liquid or solids.
- Particles: A particle is one of the substances in a colloid mixture.
- Tyndall Effect: The Tyndall effect is used to identify a colloid mixture in a solution.
Subsequent to absorbing this lesson’s information, test your capacity to:
- Recognize the definition of a colloid
- Provide details about solutions and suspensions
- Understand the way in which the Tyndall effect is used