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This is one factor that affects accuracy of the result because of not knowing how concentrations and volume for the given solutions measured precisely and accurately. Random errors: The rate of delivery: this mainly affects the accuracy of result . Let was not too fast otherwise the burette may not drain cleanly. This would leave drops of solution adhering to the walls of the burette, which in turn would lead to an inaccurate titer volt me. Zero error is also another kind of error which affects this experiment by dividing zero unequal parts. This indicates how much measuring instruments are sensitive. This affects precision of measured value. This occurs when there is inequality between left division and right division of the measurement.. Reading error.

This error is also another kind of error which is relevant to this particular experiment. This error was occurred because of our position of eye to the burette. And was due to how we can concentrate more on exact value from burette for volume of the solutions. %propagated error in %propagated error in apart=22% %propagated error in both=70% which is large and this happened because of errors which are relevant to this particular experiment. Mainly this value is the result of the given value for both concentration and volume of unknown solutions in which the value for them considered as literature. In addition to this another cause for this value is how experiment was conducted and handled.

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This problem will be solved through making research on how the given solutions measured precisely and accurately and doing repetitive experiment till to know about how experiment will conduct in a good manner and how to handle data precisely. Taking 3 trials is also not too much good enough to get accurate value. To minimize and reduce random error in this particular experiment taking at least 5 trials will be better. By taking average for five trials will reduce random errors ND more or less will enable to got more accurate value rather than taking three trials. Iodine/trioxide solutions are unstable for a variety of reasons. First of all, aqueous iodine exerts a significant vapor pressure.. Also, under acidic conditions iodide is slowly oxidized to produce air-iodine.

Finally, under alkaline conditions, iodine will disproportionate to produce iodide and iodated, as follows: 312 (aqua) +OH-C) Thus, iodine solutions are generally most stable at neutral pH values. Iodine iterant solutions must be Standardized fairly frequently against a standard sodium oxalate solution Aqueous iodine is not so stable under acidic conditions. Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide by Odometer Solutions of hydrogen peroxide are widely sold as disinfectants. Since hydrogen peroxide is an oxidize agent, it will react with iodide in a redo reaction as follows: H2O (s) + OH+(g) +21(aqua) The reaction is not instantaneous, but it is fast enough to form the basis of a practical analysis by Audiometric titration. The sample is added to an acidic solution containing an unmeasured excess of iodide.

After the reaction is complete, the iodine produced by the above reaction is titrated with sodium housemate. OTHER CONSTITUENT OF VITAMIN C If you take a look at a variety of vitamin C supplements, you will find that the majority of them contain only ascorbic acid or a compound called acerbate, which is a less acidic form of ascorbic acid. Ascorbic acid is NOT vitamin C. It represents the outer ring that serves as a protective shell for the entire vitamin C complex, much like an orange peel that serves as a protective shell for an orange. Real vitamin C found in whole foods like fruits and vegetables contains the following components: Rutting Offloading (vitamin P) Factor K Factor J Factor P Tyrosine

Carcinogens Ascorbic Acid Improvements: for primary standard and factors that affect result in one direction and various direction It must have a high purity solution which uses for standardization . This is to ensure that the mass of the sample weighed out is composed entirely of the substance itself and nothing else. Were impurities present primary standard (Sodium theosophical) or solution which was used for standardization , then the true mass of the substance present would be less than the measured mass and this would lead to the solution having a concentration less than the calculated value. It must be stable in air and in solution PRIMARY STANDARD (or in this case sodium theosophical). Elf this were not the case then some of the substance would be used up in reacting with chemicals in the air or with the solvent.

As a result, the true concentration of the resulting solution would be less than its calculated Solution which uses for standardization must be readily soluble in a solvent. (Normally water) and its solubility should be reasonably high so that solutions of relatively high concentrations can be prepared. Primary standard (sodium theosophical) should have a reasonably large relative ormolu mass in order to minimize the uncertainty in the mass of substance weighed out. A balance reading to 0. 01 g should be adequate in weighing out samples of primary standards but if greater accuracy is required then a balance reading to three decimal places should be used.

Therefore more sensitive instruments are better to get accurate values Once the primary standard has dissolved, the resulting solution is carefully poured into an appropriately sized standard (volumetric) flask via a filter funnel placed in the neck of the flask. Both the flask and the funnel must be clean but either need be dry just so long as they are wet with downside water. Using a wash bottle, the interior surface of the beaker should be washed with downside water and the washings transferred to the flask. The washing process should be repeated at least two more times to ensure that the entire primary standard has been transferred to the flask. Downside water is then added directly to the flask until the level of the solution is within about 1 CM of the graduation mark.

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