Tertiary alcohol turns cloudy or appears in two layers almost inordinately, secondary alcohol reacts within 5 to 10 minutes whereas primary alcohol reacts very slowly. Alcohol can be oxidized to alluded, ketene or carboxylic acid. The product formed depends on the class of alcohol used. Various oxidation agents such as Anaconda and Hacker can be used, The reaction been alcohols and carboxylic acids will produce esters. Apparatus: Stopper, dropper, test tube, stopwatch, water bath, measuring cylinder (ml) Chemical Reagents: Ethanol, n-Butane, 2-Butane, Alcohol X, Lucas reagent, 2-methyl-2-proposal, Concentrated HESS.
. . 04 M Anaconda. Glacial acetic acid Procedure (a) Lucas Test 1 ml of 2-methyl-2-proposal is placed in a test tube.
2. 2 ml of Lucas reagent is added into the test tube. 3. The test tube is stopped and shook. 4. The observation and the time taken for the reaction to occur are recorded. Step I until 4 are repeated using 2-butane, n-butane and alcohol X.
The test tube that has no change is placed in a water bath at 70-80 C. (b) Oxidation S ml of 0. 04 M An,Cry, solution is placed in the test tube. 2 3 drops of encountered HASPS is added to the solution in the fume cupboard. , 3 drops of n-butane is added to the mixture and heated in a water bath at 70-80 C. 4. Step 1 until 4 are repeated using 2-butane, 2-methyl-2-proposal and alcohol X.
5. The color change is recorded. (c) Stratification 2 ml of ethanol is placed dry test tube. 1 ml of glacial acetic acid and 3 drops of concentrated HOST. Are added to the ethanol in the fume cupboard, 3, The mixture is shook and placed in water bath at 60 C for 5 to 10 minutes. 4.
3 ml of distilled water is added to the mixture. A whiff of the vapor released avgas taken.Results: Alcohol Observation Deduction 2-methyl-2-proposal The solution turn cloudy and 2 different layers are formed immediately Tertiary alcohol 2-butane The solution turn cloudy and 2 different layers are formed in min ass I Secondary alcohol n-butane The solution turn cloudy and 2 different layers are formed in min ass I Primary alcohol Alcohol X The solution turn cloudy and 2 different layers are formed immediately I Tertiary alcohol I 2-methyl-2-proposal Orange color remain unchanged I Not undergo oxidation 1 2-butane Orange color turns green and 2 layers are formedUndergo oxidation n-butane Orange color turns green and 2 layers are formed Undergo oxidation I Alcohol X I Orange color remain unchanged Not undergo oxidation Ethanol Fruity smell is produced Ester is formed I Discussion: Part A: Lucas Test R_ OH_ CLC + H2O Based on the equation, we know that the alcohol undergoes dehydration reaction. Water layer was formed on the top and Halloween layer formed at the bottom.
Halloween unable to form hydrogen bonds With water (carbon bonded chlorine atom), Which gives the two layers partition to the solution. On other words, water is inorganic solvent and alkaline is organic solvent.Part B: Oxidation n.
butane C- C-OH 2-butane Nazarene/H* 2-methyl-2-proposal Part C: Stratification cons. HASPS C- C- O- C,Has+ Nazarene/HE- c- H II CHI. – _ no reaction G_ OH CHI Precaution: use dry test tube. 2. Wear safety goggle during experiment, 3. Handle chemical reagents carefully (especially alcohol and acidic reagents). 4.
Throw away the chemical wastes into organic waste container. Conclusion: Based on the experiment’s result, the reactivity of chemical reagents such as n-butane, 2-butane, 2-methyl-2-proposal and alcohol X can be determined based on Lucas test (dehydration).The removal of water leads to the formation of Halloween, which gives two layers of the solution. The highest reactivity is the tertiary, followed by secondary and lastly primary alcohol Thus, type of alcohol can be determined. The oxidation test helps us to know whether the alcohol is stable or not.
The stable alcohol will have no effect on chemical reaction. If it is an unstable alcohol, green color will be formed. Therefore, the chemical properties of alcohols can be determined. N-butane is primary alcohol,2-butane is the secondary alcohol , 2-methyl-2-proposal and alcohol X is a tertiary alcohol.