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There are two types of acids: strong acid and weak acid, and also two types of bases: strong base and weak base. Therefore four types of acid- ass titration are possible: strong acid-strong base, strong base-weak acid, weak acid-strong base and strong acid-weak base titration. Acid + Base Salt + Water The end point occurs when the psychometric amount of base (or acid) has been added to the acid (or the base). The end point is frequently detected using a visual indicator.

An acid-base indicator is a substance, which changes color with PH. For each type of acid-base titration, an appropriate indicator must be chosen. However, the end point can also be determined photoelectrical using a pH meter or by a econometric method. At this point, all the acid has been traumatized and neither excess base nor excess acid is present in the solution. The solution consists of salt and water only. That is why acid-base titration are also called naturalization titration (Seines and Plane 1957, 340-343).

Naturalization reactions in experiments: Noah(aqua) + KIP(aqua) An+ + KIP- *H2O Noah(aqua) + CHOOSE CHOC- + An+ *H2O Information – Some indicators (including Phenolphthalein) Indicator I pH at which color changes I Color at lower pH Color at higher pH I Phenolphthalein 1 91 Colorless Red I Litmus 1 71 Red I Blue Alizarin Yellow | 11 | Yellow I Red I Methyl Red 1 51 Red I Yellow – KIP This is a large molecule (CHUKKA) with a molar mass of 204. 2 g/mol. Instead of writing the whole formula, the formula is abbreviated as KIP, where “P” stands for the phthalate ion, C8H4042-, not for phosphorus.

KIP is an acidic substance, with the ionizing hydrogen being set forward in the formula for emphasis (Rushing 2012). Objective The main objective is to discover/determine the unknown acid sample using titration method and to calculate volume to neutralize acid sample. The aim of the experiment is to determine the molarities and percent by weight of acetic acid in the vinegar solution through titration method, using standard elution” sodium hydroxide solution. The standardization of sodium hydroxide solution uses KIP solution and also phenolphthalein (an acid-base indicator).

The calculation selection is using formula of Geochemistry and others. The aim of the experiments is also to learn the ways to conduct experiment safe and properly, and the importance of teamwork and leading skill. Hypothesis In part A When sodium hydroxide solution is prepared by dissolving sodium hydroxide pellets with distilled water, colorless solution will be observed. In part B If 3-5 drops of phenolphthalein are added to 20 ml of 0. 1 M KIP solution, a ink solution will be found.

The prepared sodium hydroxide solution is added from burette into the KIP solution in the flask and it is swirled constantly during the process. Then the color changes in the solution will be seen. The pink color solution will turn into a pale pink color one at the end point. In part C The 30 ml vinegar solution is covered with a watch glass to prevent evaporation. About 2 ml of vinegar sample is diluted with 1 00 ml of distilled water. Phenolphthalein indicator is used. Then when it is titrated with sodium hydroxide solution, a pale pink solution will be observed at the end point.

Procedure Task A: Preparation of the approximately 0. 1 M sodium hydroxide solution 1 Take out sodium hydroxide pellets and weight the pellets | 2 | Prepare a clean beaker and dissolve in distilled water 3 | Observe the changes in the distillation process I 4 | Transfer into 250 ml volumetric flask I Task B: Standardization of the sodium hydroxide solution I Fill prepared Noah solution into clean 50 ml burette | 2 | Clamp the burette with double burette holder at a retort stand and record the initial reading | 3 | Take 3 clean 250 ml Erlenmeyer flasks and pipette 20 ml of 0. M KIP solution into each | 4 | Add 3-5 drops of phenolphthalein I | Carry out the titration and swirl the flask constantly during the process I 6 | Observe color changes in the solution and record the reading to the nearest 0. 05 ml at the end point 7 | Repeat the titration until at least two concordant titers with difference not more than 0. 10 ml are obtained I Titration Techniques The technique of titration is used to find out accurately how much of a chemical substance is dissolved in a given volume of a solution, that is, the concentration of the solution.

The technique uses a particular set of apparatus with which volumes of solutions can be measured to an accuracy of greater than 0. Cam. Three important pieces of apparatus Burette to measure accurately the volume of a solution added. The scale can be read to an accuracy of half a division, that is to 0. 05 Cam. (ii) Pipette to deliver an accurate volume of a solution. Often this is 25 Cam. (iii) Volumetric flask to make up an accurate volume of a solution, for example, 250 Cam.

This could be a standard solution (Titration – apparatus, technique, calculation 2012). This process sometimes needs indicator to identify the end point. Titrating with a pH meter This method is similar to a titration with an indicator, except that the end point is detected by a rapid change in pH, rather than the color change of an indicator. The apparatus used are: stirrer, burette, and pH meter electrode. To determine the end point accurately, pH vs… Illume of iterant added and the titration curve is plotted due to the titration (Chemical 1997-2000). Definition of end point The point at which the system is neither acidic or basic is referred to as the end point. The end point will correspond to a perfect psychometric relationship between the acid and the base. The end point is the point at which the titration is complete, as determined by an indicator (Titration 2012).

Task C: Analysis of a vinegar solution 1 | Prepare 30 ml vinegar solution and cover with watch glass | 2 | Prepare 3 clean Erlenmeyer flasks, then mix 2 ml of vinegar solution with 100 ml of distilled water | 3 | Set up the titration apparatus system according to Task B | 4 Titrate the diluted vinegar with sodium hydroxide to endpoint | 5 | Repeat two times I Safety I Hazards Identification I First Aid Measures I Handling and Storage Disposal Considerations I Sodium hydroxide, Pellets (Sodium hydroxide, Pellets, Reagent ACS MASS 2012) | Potential Acute Health Effects:Very hazardous in case of skin intact (corrosive, irritant, permeated), of eye contact (irritant, corrosive), of ingestion,of inhalation. The amount of tissue damage depends on length of contact. Eye contact can result in corneal damage rebelliousness. Skin contact can produce inflammation and blistering.

Inhalation of dust will produce irritation to Castro-intestinal respiratory tract, characterized by burning, sneezing and coughing. Severe over-exposure can produce lung damage, choking,unconsciousness or death. Inflammation of the eye is characterized by redness, watering, and itching. Skin inflammation characterized by itching, calling, reddening, or, occasionally, blistering. Potential Chronic Health Effects:The substance is toxic to lungs. Repeated or prolonged exposure to outdistance can produce target organs damage. Repeated exposure of the eyes to a low level of dust can produce eye irritation. Repeated skin exposure can produce local skin destruction, or dermatitis. Repeated inhalation of dust can produce overburdening of respiratory irritation or lung damage.

Eye Contact:Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention immediately. Skin Contact:Len case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing shoes. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Cold water may be used. Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clearances before reuse. Get medical attention immediately. Serious Skin Contact:Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek medical attention. Inhalation:elf inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get interdenominational immediately. Serious Inhalation:Evacuate the victim to a safe area as soon as possible. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Lubricating is difficult, administer oxygen. If the victim is not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. WARNING: It maybe hazardous to the person providing aid to give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation when the inhaled material is toxic, infectious recessive. Seek immediate medical attention. Elongations:Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel.

Never give anything by mouth to an unconsciousness. If large quantities of this material are swallowed, call a physician immediately. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar,tie, belt or waistband. I Precautions:Keep container dry. Do not breathe dust. Never add water to this product. In case of insufficient ventilation, wear stratospherically equipment. If you feel unwell, seek medical attention and show the label when possible. Avoid contact with skinned eyes. Keep away from incompatibles such as oxidize agents, reducing agents, metals, acids, alkalis, moisture. Storage: Keep container tightly closed. Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Do not store above ICC (73. 40 F).

I Waste Disposal:Waste must be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local environmental control regulations. I Potassium hydrogen phthalate (MATERIAL SAFETY DATA Assistantships hydrogen phthalate 2008) | Potential Health Effects: May cause eye irritation. Skin: May cause skin irritation. May be harmful if absorbed through the skin. Elongations: May cause irritation of the digestive tract. May be harmful if swallowed. Limitation: May cause respiratory tract irritation. May be harmful if inhaled. I Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with lent of water for at least 15 minutes, occasionally lifting upper and lower eyelids. If irritation develops, get medical aid.

Skin: Immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 1 5 minutes while reinvestigation’s clothing and shoes. Get medical aid if irritation develops or persists. Elongations: Do not induce vomiting. Get medical aid if irritation or symptoms occur. Limitation: Remove from exposure and move to fresh air immediately. If not breathing, give arteriolosclerosis. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get medical aid if cough or thermometers appear. I Handling: Use with adequate ventilation. Minimize dust generation and accumulation. Avoid contact withes, skin, and clothing. Avoid ingestion and inhalation. Storage: Store in a cool, dry place. Store in a tightly closed container.

Products considered hazardous for supply are classified as Special Waste and the disposal of chemical’s is covered by regulations which may vary according to location. Contact a specialist displacement or the local authority or advice. Empty containers must be decontaminated before returning foreclosing. I Acetic Acid (Acetic acid MASS 2011) | Potential Acute Health Effects:Very hazardous in case of skin contact irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. Hazardous in case of contacts (corrosive, permeated), of eye contact (corrosive). Liquid or spray mist may produce tissue damage particularly mucous membranes of eyes, mouth and respiratory tract. Skin contact may produce burns.

Inhalation of the spray mist maypole severe irritation of respiratory tract, characterized by coughing, choking, or shortness of breath. Inflammation of they is characterized by redness, watering, and itching. Skin inflammation is characterized by itching, scaling, reddening, or,occasionally, blistering. Potential Chronic Health Effects:Hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation. MUTAGEN EFFECTS: Mutagen for mammalian somatic cells. Mutagen for bacteria and/or yeast. The substance may be toxic to kidneys, encumbrances, skin, teeth. Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs damage.

Repeated or prolonged contact with spray mist may produce chronic eye irritation and severe skin irritation. Repeated or prosperousness to spray mist may produce respiratory tract irritation leading to frequent attacks of bronchial infection. I Eye Contact:Check or and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water for at least minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention immediately. Skin Contact:Len case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes while removing contaminated clothing shoes. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Cold water may be used.

Wash clothing before reuse. Thoroughly clearances before reuse. Get medical attention immediately. Serious Skin Contact:Wash with a disinfectant soap and cover the contaminated skin with an anti-bacterial cream. Seek immediate interdenominational. Limitation:elf inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Get interdenominational immediately-Serious Inhalation:Evacuate the victim to a safe medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to an unconsciousness. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical attention if symptoms appear. Precautions:Keep away from heat.

Keep away from sources of ignition. Ground all equipment containing material. Do not ingest. Do underneath gas/fumes/ vapor/spray. Never add water to this product. In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable argumentativeness. If ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label. Avoid contact with skin anodynes. Keep away from incompatibles such as oxidize agents, reducing agents, metals, acids, alkalis. Storage:Store in a segregated and approved area. Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Keep container tightly closed unhandled until ready for use. Avoid all possible sources of ignition (spark or flame).

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