CHAPTER TWO2.0INTRODUCTION In this chapter of the research, there aretwo headings majorly which are the origin of terrorism in Iraq where a briefhistory of terrorism in Iraq would be given and also the way the variousterrorist groups in Iraq came to be including the reasons for their initialcreation. Secondly, in this chapter, the major terrorist groups in Iraq wouldbe focused on and a short documentary would be given on them and this includesthe major activities and significant moments of these groups. 2.1HOW DID TERRORISM ORIGINATE IN IRAQ? INTRODUCTION Terrorism as we all have a knowledgeof, is an act of violence adopted by extremist (groups and individuals) toachieve their goals through violence and force and the origin of this act inthe state of Iraq has religious extremists of the Islamic religion majorly whoare Islamists and islamofacists who practice radical Islam combined withundemocratic institutions in such fashion that it creates a threat to theneighborhood, and in concentric circle fashion and is such a threat to theextent to which Iran develops a missile envelope that goes outward, and all ofa sudden it begins to encapsulate the American-European allies (in the middleeast) and eventually (sets its aims on) the United States itself. (PROF.RAYMOND TANTER).
REFERENCE:Raymond Tanter, personal interview with Mike Evans, June 15, 2006. “CHAPTEREIGHT: The Rise of Islamofacism” from the book “THE FINAL MOVE BEYOND IRAQ” Also in this section of the chapterwhere the origin of terrorism in Iraq would be examined, it would be furtherdivided into two sections where the first would be what terrorism in Iraqlooked like before the invasion of Iraq by the US in 2003 and this section is wrappedup with the greatest terrorist attack ever in human history “THE 9/11 ATTACK”which killed almost 3,000 people and left several others with injuries and itwas named after the date the attack was launched against the US on September11, 2001. The latter section would be dealing with the aftermath of theinvasion which led to a high rise in terrorism in Iraq where the nationsuffered about 14 years of gruesome terrorist acts from relatively 2003 to 2017with critical moments in 2004, 2014, 2015 and 2016 and this section would alsotalk a little on how this invasion connected to the birth of new terroristgroups and alliances among terrorist groups which then leads ultimately to thecreation of ISIS. 2.1.
1TERRORISM IN IRAQ BEFORE THE 2003 INVASION In Iraq before 2003, terrorism was employed repeatedly overtimes and several instances even before Saddam became the president of thenation on the 16 July 1979 asan element of its foreign policy in the past, at least since the 1980s, it hascarefully chosen its proxies and used them to pursue limited objectives.Baghdad, however, has often failed when trying to use terrorist violencesuccessfully, suggesting that the regime’s own capabilities are limited.Iraq supported several terrorist groups in the past. Forexample, Baghdad has harbored the May 15 Organization, a Palestinian groupknown for bombing airplanes and Iraq gave sanctuary to the Palestine LiberationFront (PLF) infamous for the 1985 hijacking of the Achille Lauro and the murderof Leon Klinghoffe also, Iraq helped form the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO),using it to assassinate Syrian and Palestinian opponents. Most of Iraq’ssupport to these groups has consisted of logistical support, such as bases,training, and supplies. Nevertheless, the scale of its backing of terroristgroups was dwarfed by others like Iran, which tried to create large popularinsurgencies from whole cloth.Iraq has provided more extensive support to theanti-Tehran Mujahedin-e Khalq (MEK)and the anti-Turkey Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) as means of exerting pressureon their northern and eastern neighbors. In both cases, Iraq has helped thesegroups establish a safe haven in Iraq itself where they could base theirguerrilla wars and plan terrorist attacks.
Ties to the MEK are particularlyclose, and it has in essence become a wholly owned proxy of Baghdad for useagainst Iran. In recent times, ties between Iraq and these traditionalassociates have declined or become less important a long time ago but the MEK remainsactive, although the pace of its attacks against Iran has fallen off as Baghdadhas attempted to mend fences with Tehran. The PKK also has become far lesseffective since the arrest of its leader, Abdullah Ocalan, in 1999. The PLF has not pulled off a major attack since 1992,despite the collapse of the Oslo Accords. ANO has been similarly inactive inrecent years, and in August 2002, Abu Nidal himself died in Baghdad in a”suicide” that most suspect was Saddam’s effort to distance himself fromcharges of harboring terrorists.In general, Saddam distrusted what he couldn’t control,thus Baghdad avoided close association with independent terrorist groups,preferring to work with organizations that it could dominate.
Iraq worked withthe Abu Nidal Organization and the PLF over which it exercised considerablecontrol, but never forged strong relationships with Fatah, Hezbollah, HAMAS, orother groups with a strong independent base and so would never be subservientto Baghdad. Even then, its support for ANO and PLF ebbed over time in favor ofgroups like the MEK which were even more tightly controlled by Iraq.Baghdad’s terrorism ties and involvement were not basedon ideology, Iraq has worked with Christians and Islamic fundamentalists, withPersians and Kurds, with fellow Ba’thists and pure killers as long as they havesuited the regime’s interests nor is Saddam a loyal paymaster.
DespiteBaghdad’s close working relationship with ANO, it did not hesitate to expel theorganization in 1983 to gain Western goodwill during its war with Iran.Whenever it has sought to attack the UnitedStates itself, Iraq has preferred to rely on its own operatives. Thus, Iraqiagents were involved in attempted bombings of U.S. facilities in Indonesia, thePhilippines, and Malaysia during the first Gulf War. Similarly, Iraq used itsown people in the failed assassination of President Bush in 1993.
Even thoughANO conducted numerous attacks against Americans during the 1970s and 1980s,these were not believed to be at Baghdad’s behest.Iraq’s terrorist operations in the past havebeen startlingly inept. Former Director of Central Intelligence William Websternoted that during the Gulf War the Iraqi intelligence officers usedsequentially numbered passports. As a result, once several officers werearrested, the rest were easily discovered and detained. Nor have Iraqis hiddentheir hands well.
One of the bombers arrested in Southeast Asia even asked thatthe Iraqi Embassy be notified of his detention. In 1993, the assassination teamin Kuwait used explosives similar to those of previous Iraqi operations and didnot practice phone security, making it easy to trace the origin of the plot. Also, it can be said that before the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the UnitedStates, there have been activities of terrorism in the state because the thenpresident “SADDAM HUSSEIN” in the first place caught the attention of the US byexecuting acts that can be categorized under terrorism such as providing bases,training camps, and other support to terrorist groups fighting the governmentsof neighboring Turkey and Iran, as well as to Palestinian terror groups andalso, the Bush administration which was categorized mainly by the fight againstterrorism because at the time of his tenure, terrorism was at its peak andaccording to the Bush’s administration which claimed it believed Saddam couldpass weapons of mass destruction to Osama bin Laden’s Al-Qaeda network or otherterrorists although in the first few weeks after Saddam’s fall from power,though convincing proof of an Iraq-al-Qaeda link remained lacking (IRAQI TIESTO TERRORISM February 03, 2005). Although long before this, (WHAT TERRORISM WASLIKE IN IRAQ BEFORE SADDAM). But according to many analysts, it is being saidthat the definite move to invade Iraq by the US was made certain by the 9/11attacks on the US allegedly by an Al-Qaeda linked group and it was after theinvasion terrorism began to take a high rise in Iraq and prior to this was theattack on the Kuwait oil wells which according to “””” said was aimed atkilling GEORGE W.
BUSH. The invasion by the Bush’s administration was aimed atdealing with terrorism because his time in office was characterized primarilyby the fight against terrorism because at the dawn of the 21stcentury terrorism was when Bush happened to be in office of the top worldnation “USA” and when the fight against terrorism commenced, the fight wastaken to the world’s terrorism capital “Baghdad” in Iraq and as a result, itled to Iraq being the world’s hotspot of terrorism according to various indexeson countries most affected by terrorism where Iraq topped those listings in thefollowing years (LIST THE YEARS) with other middle eastern states followingbehind not until about three years ago, an African country “NIGERIA” showed upon the list as third because of the presence of another terrorist group in thecountry by name “BOKO HARRAM”. 2.
1.2TERRORISM IN IRAQ AFTER THE 2003 INVASION Within a year after the invasion ofIraq in March 2003 by the United States, there had been various attacks withinIraq since then even after the US troops began to withdraw from Iraq inDecember 2007 and finally in 2011 to end the Iraq war, there was a relativelyhigh level of terrorist acts in the country most especially in 2014 which was avery bad year in regards to terrorism as stipulated by various indexes onterrorism. But without diverging from the discourse, the activities that can beconsidered acts of terrorism in Iraq since 2003 can be considered also to bepart of a demonstration that thepresence of the US troops on Iraqi soil was not welcomed and as such there werebeckoning’s for a jihad in the state by prominent leaders of Islam for exampleis one of the most respected analysts in the Arab world, Abdul Bari al-Atwan whosaid the US didn’t come to liberate Iraqbut rather to humiliate it and it would want to do so to other Arab states andall the United States would get is resistance and hatred, thereby encouragingfurther the resistance of the US troops in the state of Iraq resulting inincreased hostility towards the US troops from the Iraqi citizenry (Bodansky,The Secret History of The Iraq War, 9).
Also, another entity who propelled thehostility towards the west was the renowned terrorist and leader of the Al-Qaedanetwork (Osama Bin Laden) who encouraged acts of terrorism such as suicidebombings by giving such addresses as ” the reward of those who help ineliminating the “infidels” thereby contributing to the liberation course of theIslamic state would be rewarded by Allah” and this is not right according tothe doctrines of the Islamic religion because the doctrines of the religiondoes not support the killing of innocent people in war. In order to push the US out of Iraq becausethe Arabs felt along with the fight for liberation the US brought to Iraq camealso democracy and this was alien to the practices of the Islamic state of Iraqas stated by the then president of the United States President W. Bush who inan address at the White House on the 8th of November 2001 made the followingstatement “This new enemy seeks to destroy our freedom and I pose its views. Wevalue life; the terrorists ruthlessly destroy it. We value education; theterrorists do not believe women should be educated or should have health care,or should leave their homes. We value the right to speak our minds; for theterrorists, free expression can be ground for execution. We respect people ofall faiths and welcome the free practice of religion; our enemy wants todictate how to think and how to worship even to their fellow Muslims.
” Going toshow that there is no atom of democratic practice in the Islamic state of Iraqand therefore, the following monthsafter the invasion, Islamic brethren who would carry out terrorist attacks andbecome members of the terrorist groups that would later be formed trooped intoIraq to answer the call for the holy war which was aimed to make theintroduction of democracy into the Islamic state impossible, through variousacts of terrorism such as ( ) and the acts of terrorism such as suicidebombing, killing of the US troops among others were encouraged by Osama BinLaden who was seen in the light of a leader at the time by Islamic brethren ofthe same philosophy which is () and there have been various publications ofOsama addressing his fellow terrorist and encouraging them to take part in thegreat ideological war by him saying such things as (QUOTE THE BOOK). “We are in dire need of you…. Thefield of jihad can satisfy your scientific ambitions, and large American bases(in Iraq) are good places to test your unconventional weapons, whetherbiological or dirty, as they call them” ABU AYYUB AL-MASRIleader of AL-Qaeda in Iraq, in a call for experts in the fields of “chemistry,physics, electronics, media and all other sciences especially nuclearscientists and explosives experts” to join the terror group’s holy war againstthe West.
After the invasion of Iraq in 2003the following took place and therefore led Iraq to the point where it is at themoment as a state such as:1. Creationof terrorist groups2. 2.2WHAT ARE THE TERRORIST GROUPS WHO HAVE BY THEIR ACTIVITIES ADVERSELY AFFECTED THESOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF IRAQ AS A STATE? INTRODUCTION In this part of the chapter, as noted inthe introduction as the second aspect of the chapter where the major terroristgroups in Iraq would be documented and discussed alongside their terrorist actsand how these acts have affected the development of Iraq as a statesocio-economically. Majorly, the terrorist groups that have come to play in theterrorism sphere of Iraq can be considered basically to be two “AL-QAEDA” and”ISIS or ISIL” but some other groups within the state of Iraq who have promotedviolence in the state and can be considered as terrorist groups as a result oftheir violent acts are the SHIITE, SUNNI and the KURDISTAN Muslims. 2.2.
1THE AL-QAEDA NETWORK Here the terrorist organization”AL-QAEDA” and its affiliate organizations would be concentrated on anddiscussed briefly. Al-Qaeda was formed in 1988 by Osamabin Laden, a Saudi Arabian who was killed in 2011 with credit to the USgovernment and specifically the Barrack Obama administration, and AbdullahAzzam, a Palestinian Sunni scholar who was killed in 1989. The group, like theTaliban, came to prominence during the Soviet war in Afghanistan of. It strivesfor international jihad. The group was responsible for largescale attacks in New York, London and Madrid and was the main target of theNATO-led War on Terror following the September 11, 2001 attacks.
As a result,many of al-Qaeda leadership have been killed and al-Qaeda now adopts adecentralized structure using regional cells and affiliated organizations,known as franchises, instead of a centrally controlled organization. Al-Qaeda and its affiliates undertookattacks in 12 countries (ALGERIA, BANGLADESH, FRANCE, KENYA, LEBANON, MALI,PAKISTAN, SOMALIA, SYRIA, UGANDA, YEMEN) in 2015, down from 14 the previousyear and the peak of 16 countries in 2011. In total, there were 1,620 deaths and969 recorded injuries from 368 attacks from the six most prominent al-Qaeda affiliatesin 2015. Also, there was a 17% decline in attacks from one of the deadliest ofAl-Qaeda affiliates in 2014 “al-Shabaab going to show how dangerously andruthlessly this network of terrorism has been operating. In 2015, the deadliest affiliate of theAl-Qaeda group “AL-SHABAAB” was responsible for the death of 836 people, an 18per cent decline from 2014. Nevertheless, 2015 saw the group’s deadliest attackwhich targeted civilians; Kenya’s Garissa University College attack that killedat least 147 people.
Al-Shabaab, alsoknown as Harakat al-Shabab al-Mujahideen, is an al-Qaeda affiliate based inSomalia that is seeking to create an Islamic state in Somalia. Whilst ISIL haveappealed for al-Shabaab to pledge allegiance, al-Shabaab remain an al-Qaedaaffiliate. Kenyan military forces have been placing further pressure onal-Shabaab in Somalia in 2015 and 2016, which has diminished their ability toconduct more attacks. The second deadliest of al-Qaedaaffiliates is the “AL-NUSRA Front”, also known as Jabhat al-Nusra and al-Qaedain Syria, and has been active in the Syrian civil war since 2012. Unlike other al-Qaedaaffiliates, the group had an increase in deaths from terrorism from 488 in 2014to 611 in 2015. In 2013, ISIL attempted to annex the al-Nusra Front, whichremained affiliated with al-Qaeda until July 2016 when it announced a split.Most analysts believe this was an attempt to avoid being targets of air strikesand to potentially participate in future negotiations rather than anideological or tactical shift for the group.
As well as deaths from terrorism,in 2015 the al-Nusra Front also engaged in 270 battle-related deaths fromconflict with Harakat Hazm, Hezbollah and ISIL as well as with the forces loyalto the Assad regime. Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula(AQAP) killed 155 from terrorism in 2015, a 62 per cent decline from 2014. AQAPis active in Yemen and saw declining influence due to the influx ofISIL-affiliated groups.
Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) in Algeria andMali, active since 2007, killed 15 people across 11 attacks in 2015, includingattacks on members of the United Nations Multidimensional IntegratedStabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA). In early 2016 they also undertookattacks in Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire targeting tourists. The Abdullah Azzam Brigades is the al-Qaedabranch in Lebanon, with attacks being undertaken under the group name since2004.
They did not claim responsibility for any deaths from terrorism in 2015and have been less deadly since the capture of their former leader in late2013. The newest al-Qaeda affiliate, al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent, beganactivities in September 2014 and claimed responsibility for the deaths ofsecular bloggers and publishers in Bangladesh. 2.2.2ISIS or ISIL ISIL, also known as ISIS, IslamicState of Iraq and the Levant or Daesh, is a terrorist group based in Syria andIraq. It emerged from al-Qaeda in Iraq, moving into Syria during the Syriancivil war. In February 2014 al-Qaeda formally broke ties with ISIL, with theleader of al-Qaeda stating ISIL disobeyed directions from al-Qaeda to killfewer civilians.
Like other fundamentalist jihadi groups, ISIL seeks to createan area of Islamic rule. The group controls a significant amount of territoryin both Iraq and Syria. ISIL aspires to control the Levant region whichincludes Israel, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. It is opposed to the AlawiteAssad regime and the Shia Iraqi Government of Haider al-Abadi. ISIL has alsoclaimed to be fighting a holy war against Shia Muslims, Christians and Yezidis,an ethno-religious group in Iraq and Syria. The entire organization is led byAbu Bakr al-Baghdadi who is known as the Caliph or political successor.
ISILhas a strong military presence in the region with many former members of theIraqi army under the Saddam Hussein regime joining it. In 2015, ISIL slightly increased thedeadliness of attacks from previous years. This resulted in ISIL killing 6,141people in terrorist attacks, a one per cent increase from 2014.
However, thisincrease in deaths coincided with an 11 per cent reduction in attacks. As such,ISIL became more deadly, with more high-fatality attacks. There were on average6.4 deaths per attack in 2015 up from 5.7 deaths per attack in 2014. As well asincreased lethality, there was also an increase in the number of countriestargeted by ISIL.
ISIL conducted attacks in 11 countries in 2015, up from sixcountries the previous year. The group undertook attacks in 252 differentcities in 2015. 2015 also saw an increase in the number of groups that claimedaffiliation with ISIL. There were ISIL affiliates active in 13 countries in2014. By 2015 that had grown to at least 28 countries which had groups that hadpledged allegiance to ISIL.
There have also been attacks by individuals whohave been inspired or directed by ISIL. For example, there were ISIL-inspiredplots in at least 11 OECD countries in 2015. Despite the increased geographicspread of ISIL connected attacks, the majority of attacks occurred in Iraq andSyria. 81 per cent of attacks by ISIL were in Iraq and 15 per cent were inSyria. Four cities in Iraq, Baghdad, Ramadi, Mosul and Baiji, togetheraccounted for a quarter of all attacks.
The majority of attacks targetedcivilians, who account for 43 per cent of deaths. Over half of attacks oncivilians were bombings or explosions, with the number of assassinationsdecreasing from the previous year. There were 609 bombings by ISIL in 2015, andthey were more deadly on average than previous years. This is a trend that hasbeen seen with other groups too. As groups gain greater experience withexplosives they tend to have more casualties with fewer attacks.
In 2014, 40per cent of attacks did not lead to any deaths, whereas it was 23 per cent in2015. The biggest change in 2015 was the increased lethality of suicidebombings. Suicide bombings remained more deadly than other types of bombingswith on average 11 deaths per attack compared to three for other types ofbombings. This was an increase of 20 per cent from the previous year. ISIL generated an estimated US$2billion in revenue in 2015.
This was largely due to smuggling of oil which atone stage generated on average US$1.3 million a day.3 According to the UStreasury department this business left ISIL net profits of just over US$500million in 2015.4 As a result of the targeting of ISIL-operated refineries andconvoys by coalition forces, production declined from 75,000 to 50,000 barrelsper day.
5 Another major revenue stream for ISIL is taxation, both forindividuals and businesses in the territory they control. This is estimated tobe US$350 million per year.6 This includes income and business tax of ten percent, as well as taxes on pharmaceutical drugs and cash withdrawals.Othersignificant sources of financing include the sale of archaeological pieces toblack markets, which was estimated to be up to US$100 million per year.
7 ISILhas also generated revenue from kidnapping for ransom, estimated to be up toUS$45 million in 2014. Kidnapping has often targeted the internationalcommunity, but declined in 2015 and 2016 as there were fewer staff frommultinationals active in regions controlled by ISIL.8 There have also beenreports that there is a connection between ISIL and drug smuggling.9