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CHAPTER
1

INTRODUCTION:

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In the current scenario, Millions of people are affected by visual
abnormalities, it was with a challenge that this project came into being. An
introduction for the thesis describing briefly the human vision process. The objective
from the thesis “Artificial Eye” It
aims at restoring vision to the blind. Today, high-tech resources in
microelectronics, computer science, biomedical engineering and also in vitreo
retinal surgery are working together to realize a device for the electrical
stimulation of the visual system.

WHAT IS ARTIFICIAL EYE

    
The artificial eye can be regarded as the lab produced eyes that we can
get fixed in the place of impaired
or damaged eyes. This approach
cannot make the person be able to view anything but still it is bought in
practice so as to keep the natural look of face stay intact and the person does
not look weird to others till he manages to find an eye donor for him to get
the original eyes fixed. It is a replacement for a natural eye lost because of
injury or disease. Although the replacement cannot provide sight, it fills the
cavity of the socket and serves as a cosmetic enhancement. An artificial eye also refers to ocular prosthesis, non-
functioning cosmetic replacement for a lost eye. We can also say is a curved
disk of opaque glass or plastic, containing an imitation iris and pupil in the
center, instead beneath the eyelids and supported by the orbital contents after
evisceration or   enucleation; it may be
ready-made (stock) or custom-made.Before the availability of artificial eyes, a
person who lost an eye usually wore a patch.An artificial eye be attached to
muscles in the socket to provide eye movement .

 

CHAPETER 2

LITERATURE RIEVIEW

        Initially
based on the shell and reform form used for glass eyes  acrylic artificial eyes also caused soreness
due to ill fit, lack of mobility and lid distortion due to incorrect shape .
Research conducted by the United States Naval Dental and Medical Schools,
identified that due to the individuality of each enucleated socket, artificial
eyes need to be custom-made . Although custom-made artificial eyes necessitates
the work of a skilled artist making it a time consuming and costly process,
they permit accurate coloring of the iris, veining and tinting of the sclera
making it more cosmetically satisfactory to the patient. Accurate fitting of
the socket, minimizing tissue distortion, improved facial contours and
increasing the degree of motility are achieved in custom made artificial eyes  allowing even distribution of volume and
weight in the socket reducing long-term discomfort and producing better
cosmetic outcomes. These advantages result in the artificial eye moving like a
natural eye following almost simultaneously with the patient’s natural eye . McBain
et al. (2014) reported that 40% of artificial eye wearers take an average of
two years to adjust to their prosthetic with clinical levels of anxiety,
depression and appearance related distress being experienced.

 HISTORY ON ARTIFICIAL EYE

      Prior
to World War II, ocular prosthetics were made of specialized blown glass that
collapsed to form a concave shape. During and after World War II this glass
became increasing difficult to obtain. Soon, acrylic and other plastic polymers
were being used for many of the uses previously exclusive to glass. An exciting
use of this new material was for artificial eyes, or ocular prosthetics.
Acrylic revolutionized the art and process of making ocular prosthetics. The
artificial eyes has been practiced since ancient times. Egyptian priests made
the first ocular prostheses, called Ectblepharons, as early as the fifth
century BC. Scientists have created a device that allows them to communicate
directly with large numbers of individual nerve cells in the visual part of the
brain. The device is a silicon electrode array may provide a means through
which a limited but useful visual sense may be restored to profoundly blind
individuals. This
shows the development of the first visual prosthesis providing useful “artificial
vision” to a blind volunteer by connecting a digital video camera,
computer, and associated electronics to the visual cortex of his brain.

POSSIBLE CONDITIONS LEADING TO ARTIFICIAL EYE

BLIND, PAINFUL EYE, TRAUMA,
ENUCLEATION, OCULAR MELANOMA, PEFORATING EYE INJURY, INFECTION, VITREOUS
HEMORRHAGE, ENDOPHTHALMITIS.

 

 

 

        

 

CONCLUSION

The application of the
research work done is directed towards the people who are visually impaired.
People suffering from low vision to, people who are completely blind will
benefit from this project. To be honest,Before researching this topic I did not
know about the artificial eye. What I learned about the eye while doing this
project is just how much progress they have done (or needed to be done) on the
iris and the lens, how complicated replacing corneas can be, and how little
progress we have made on artificial retinas,also how the artificial eye was
made.

 

 

 

 

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