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Chapter2Principles of Animation(pics?)The principles are:1.

Timing2. Ease In and Out (or Slow In and Out – EIOor SIO)3. Arcs4. Anticipation5. Exaggeration6.

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Squash and Stretch7. Secondary Action8. Follow Through and Overlapping Action9. Straight Ahead Action and Pose-To-PoseAction10.

Staging11. Appeal12. Personality 1. Timing Timing plays avery essential role in animation. On it depends how fast or how slow an objectwill be seen moving.

Depending on the speed, the very essence of an animationcan be changed. For example, if an eye blink is fast, the subject will be seenas alert and fast; if it is slow then the same subject will appear to be movingslow, or even seen as sleepy. A very famous example given by J. Lesseter -Head that turns left and right, their interpretation as per the speed of themovement – ???If the character’s head seems to bemoving back and forth really slow: it may seem as if the character isstretching his neck (more frames required).??If the movement is a bit faster it can beseen as saying “no” (a few in between frames) 2. Ease In and Out (or Slow In and Out – EIPor SIO) This is related to the easing into or out ofan action of a character. It determines how an object will accelerate, or cometo rest, from a movement or from a pose. For example, a bouncing ball will show a lotof such movements – as it goes up, gravity affects it and it slows down (EaseIn), then it starts its downward movement, and it goes faster and faster (EaseOut), until it hits the ground.

 3. Arcs In the real world almost all action is seenas moving in an arc. IN animation, it is preferable to have motion followcurved paths rather than linear ones. It is very seldom that acharacter or part of a character moves in alinear manner. Even the movements of a body as it moves while walking are notperfectly straight.

A hand/arm reaching out to touch or grab something, tendsto move in an arc.For example – Movement of a ball through theair. 4. Anticipation Action in animation usually occurs in threestages. The first stage is the setup for the motion, then comes the actualaction and then the follow-through of the action. The first part is known asanticipation.

  In some cases anticipationis needed physically. For example, before you can throw a ball you must firstswing your arm backwards. The backwards motion is the anticipation; the throwitself is the motion.

Another example could be that when a person begins movingor walking, there are preparations for that move beforehand – the lifting ofthe leg, a slight movement of the body, etc. This period helps to prepare theviewers for the action that is to come. For example, when a character moves outof the screen, before the character actually moves, there is an anticipatorypose where the character raises a leg and bends hiss body in preparation forthe run. For any animation to be effective, the viewershould know what is about to happen(anticipation), what is happening (theactual action itself) and what has already happened (related to follow throughor the after effects of the action). 5. Exaggeration This is generally used to accent or stressan action. Care should be taken that it should be used in a careful andbalanced manner, not abundantly or arbitrarily.

First it needs to be assessedwhat is the desired goal of an action or sequence and what parts need to behighlighted or exaggerated. The result will be that the animation will seemmore realistic and entertaining and it will seem to have continuity. Exaggerating something will make itlivelier, but care needs to be taken that it retains its reality andcredibility.

For example, enhancing the size of an object to make it appeardominant, reducing the size of another to make it less dominant. 6. Squashing and Stretching Squashing and stretching are ways ofdeforming an object such that it shows how rigid or how flexible an object is.For example, if a rubber ball bounces and hits the ground it will tend toflatten when it eventually hits the ground. One thing to be kept in mind isthat no matter how an object deforms, it should ultimately still be seen asretaining its volume. The most commonly seen usage of this in characteranimation is seen in body movements – when a body is moving and the musclecontracts, it will squash and when extended, it will stretch. 7. Secondary Action Secondary action helps in creating interestand realism in animation.

It should be added in a way that it is noticeable butdoes not overshadow the main action. For example, when a character delivers hismain lines that is the main action. The secondary actions are the supportiveactions that make his character believable, like the character thumbing theirfingers on the table.  8.

Follow Through and Overlapping Action Follow through is the same as anticipation,only at the end of an action. For example, when something goes past its restingpoint and then comes back to its resting point, like when throwing a ball, youput your hand back, that’s anticipation; Follow Through is then the armcontinuing past the normal stopping point, overshooting it and then comingback.  Overlapping Action is an action that occursas a continuation of another action. For example when a running dog suddenlycomes to a stop and its ears still keep moving for a little while; this is anexample of overlapping action.    9.

Straight-Ahead Action and Pose-To-PoseAction There are 2 basic methods to creatinganimation. Straight-ahead animation is one where the objects are drawn or setup one frame at a time, processing in order. For example, the animator works ina linear way, drawing the first frame of the animation, then the second, and soon until the sequence is complete.

In this, there is usually one drawing orimage per frame. This approach has more scope for creativity but it can bedifficult to time and tweak or make changes. The other approach is Pose-to-Poseanimation.

Pose-to-Pose is created by drawing or setting up the key poses andthen drawing or creating the in between or connecting images. It is excellentfor changing timing and planning out the animation ahead of time. The key posesare figured out, and then the motion in between is generated from that.

This isvery useful when specific timing or action has to be set up at specific points. 10. Staging Staging is presenting an action or item sothat it is easily understood. An action is staged so that it is understood; apersonality is staged so that it is recognizable; an expression so that it canbe seen; a mood so that it will affect the audience.

In general, it isimportant that actions are presented one item at a time. If too much is goingon the audience will be unsure what to look at and the action will be”upstaged” or overshadowed. For example if you’re staging a sadpose you may have the character hunched overwith his arms hanging at his sides. However, if you give him this big grin onhis face it won’t fit with the rest of the pose.Staging multiple characters is also animportant issue. Generally you want to always makesure where the audience is focused at withina shot.

Background characters mustbe animated such that they are still”alive”, but not so much that they steal the viewer’sattention from the main action.  11. Appeal Appeal means anything that a person wouldlike to see in a character. This can be charm, design,simplicity, visual appeal, communication ormagnetism. It can be created by correctly utilizing other principles such asexaggeration in design, avoiding symmetry, using overlapping action,etc.

Weak or awkward design, shapes andmotion should be avoided. For example, an evil character might still haveappeal.  12. Personality Personality determines the success of ananimation. This means that the animated creature gains an aliveness and becomesfit for the role. The character should be distinct, but at the same time befamiliar to the audience.

Personality has a lot to do with what is going on inthe mind of the character, as well as the traits and mannerisms of thecharacter. All of these together will help to really bring the character alive. The above principles are the foundation uponwhich good character animation lies.

With practise, patience and perseveranceones animation skills will improve. https://design.tutsplus.

com/tutorials/cartoon-fundamentals-how-to-create-movement-and-action–vector-19904 In Animation, as also in Films and Videoproductions, 24 individual frames make for one second of a shot; in otherwords, one second of a shot is composed of 24 individual frames. Theseindividual or separate frames when projected at a speed of 24 frames/secondgive us the illusion of movement. At the speed of 24 frames/second, themovement perceived by our brains appears natural, reduce the speed to, say, 12frames/second and the movement will begin to look Jerky.

Let’s look a littlemore closely at Frame rate.What is Frame Rate?A frame rate in video is thenumber of separate frames that are introduced to the viewer in a particulartime frame. Frame rates are often measured in frames per second.

Understanding the frame rate for aproject involves understanding how the human eye and brain perceive movingimages. More frames will gives you the smoother animation and less frames willgives you the jerky animation. (see the above example).

Different industries havedifferent standards for frames per second or frame rates. In cinema, 24 framesper second has been a prevailing standard, whereas in Video production it is 25Frames/second (as in India) or 30 frames/second (as in U.S.A.).  THE BASIC OF FRAME RESOLUTION AND RATIOSStoryboards present the visual imageof what the viewer will be looking at on screen, whether it’s a television set,a movie theatre screen or a computer monitor. These are shown in a formatcalled a “storyboard panel”. A storyboard panel is a rectangular shaped box on apiece of paper.

The dimensions of this box are usually around 4″ wide x3″ high for television. There are usually 3 panels to an 8 1/2″x 11″ page. The size and shape of the panel can vary depending onwhat is called the “aspect ratio”. This is the size of the width tothe height. The television aspect ratio is 1:1.33 – 1 units high by 1.

33units wide (also known as 3:4). Standard Widescreen is 1:1.85, 70mm filmis 1:2.2, and Anamorphic Wide screen in 35mm Panavision is 1:2.35.

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