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Chapter 2


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According to Black (2015) that the leadership of Higher Education
institutions has been placed under increasing scrutiny since the 1980’s with
the expansion of student numbers, changes in funding for students places,
increased marketization and student choice, and continuing globalization of the
sector.  In this climate of change Higher
Education institutions have been required to consider how to develop their
leaders and what might be appropriate leadership behavior to enable adaptation
to these new circumstances.  When the
various paradigms of leadership encountered in the Higher Education sector are
compared with established leadership theory and practice it is possible to
identify further intricacies in the development of Higher Education
leaders.  Further consideration of
practicalities within Higher Education identifies whether competence frameworks
might assist in leadership development. 
An examination of a recently-developed comprehensive framework of
leadership capabilities applied in an alternative sector leads to an evaluation
as to whether the same constructs apply to the demands placed upon leaders in
Higher Education.  Analysis demonstrates
that, with minor changes in terminology, the constructs remain appropriate and
valid.  The definition of activities and
behaviors offer insight into how Higher Education leaders could be developed
and therefore form a potential framework of leadership capabilities for Higher

In the same study, Black (2015) mentioned that leaders in HE
institutions have to examine how to better lead their organizations, and must
also find approaches which fit best in the HE context; i.e. the most effective
leadership approach.  However, this is
not straightforward since there is no clear consensus on definition of leadership
(Kennedy, 1994) and the parallel and sometimes interweaving evolution of
leadership ideologies complicate the picture. 
Over the past 100 years several broad philosophies have emerged and can
be seen to persist in various guises in modern organizations:

1) “command-and-control” leadership has proliferated since the 19th
century industrial era, drawing on rules, incentives, threats, contracts, and
standards (Macdonald, 1998) evolving into quasi-military concepts through the
1940s (Kennedy, 1994).  This “scientific
management” approach focuses on efficiency of the organizational “machine”,
managers make decisions, specialists work in separate functions, and work is
continually simplified.

2) “behavioral” theories emerged in the 1950s , based upon more complete
considerations of human nature and motivation (McGregor, 1957; Herzberg, 1976).

3) “transactional-transformational” models in the 1970s (Burns, 1978; Bass,
1997) involve reinforcement of performance (“transactional” behavior),
alongside understanding followers, and building their self-worth and focus
(“transformational” behavior).

4) “transformational leadership” and the emphasis of transformational
behavior has become the sole dominant paradigm over the past 20 years (Kennedy,
1994; Tourish, 2008).  Leaders are
portrayed as heroes and encouraged to transform the loyalties and behaviors of
their staff through a shared organizational culture.

5)  “systems thinking” was applied to
management in the 1920s (Shewhart, 1931) and further developed in the 1940s by

In order to examine the relevance of leadership constructs within the HE
environment it is necessary to compare the existing understanding of leadership
with HE alongside contemporary leadership theory and practice. 

In conclusion, current frameworks of leadership for the Higher Education
sector do not encompass all of the behaviors expressed in established
leadership literature.  Higher Education
leaders need a combination of leadership and management competencies in order
to address the challenges faced in the sector; separation of these facets us
counterproductive and will not address the negative impact of managerialism
perceived within the institutions.  The
framework developed in this analysis offers a suitable range of approaches for
leaders in HE.  Within a changing world
of an effective leader must be both student and teacher (Kotter, 1996): always
hungry to learn more about how to enthuse, engage and empower those who follow.  For staff in academic positions, becoming a
“learner” may be uncomfortable, so these individuals should be encouraged,
through the active, visible and credible example of seniors and peers, to
appreciate the benefits and necessity of personal leadership development.

Odivwri JE (2015), for any organization to survive, appropriate impact
of leadership on the employee must be followed. 
It was inferred that democratic or participative types of leadership is
the best of all the leadership styles because of the benefits that will be
derived from it by the employees amid the overall result to the organization as
a whole.  This study also shows that it
is necessary to effect changes in impact of leadership when the need arises in
an organization in order to enhance performance.  Furthermore, when there is good leadership
there will be corporate behavior by the employee, targets will be met and
ultimately there will satisfaction on the part of the employee and the

In a study conducted by Kedir and Geleta (2017), it’s primary objective
was to assess the degree to which transformational leadership was practiced in
the technical vocational education and training institutions (TVETIs) of
Ethiopia. The study found that five transformational leadership models were
being practiced low or below average in the TVET institutions.  But, when the models were independently
considered, the variable enabling others to act and model the way were rated
relatively high whereas the remaining three leadership practices, inspiring a
shared vision, challenging the process and encouraging the heart were rated low
by the respondents. The result shows that majority of the trainers in the
TVETIs were not satisfied with the leaders ‘engagement in the five leadership
practice of Kouzes and Prosner’s transformational leadership models.  Leaders ‘failure to effectively lead change
and innovation, lack of professional support for TVETI leaders and their
incapability to use various approaches in securing and utilizing resources were
the major problems hindered effective implementation of change in the

According to Kouzes and Prosner (1995), there are ver 225 definitions of
leadership found in literature but no one claims the word on “defining” the
term.  Scholars have defined leadership
in a ways that works best for his/her work with students, managers, government
officials, community organizers, health care providers, and educational

Kouzes and
Prosner developed a model of leadership that consists of what they call it “The
Five Practices”. These are challenging the process, inspiring shared vision,
enabling others to act, modeling the way, and encouraging the heart (Kouzes and
Prosner, 2002).  Based on their research
project with successful leaders, for over almost 20 years, Kouzes and Prosner
suggested that leadership is not a position, but a collection of practices and
behaviors.  They also concluded that
leadership is a compulsory skill that can be learned by everyone.  The operationalization of these five
leadership practices is presented as follows:

Model the way

Modeling means being prepared to go first, living the behaviors they
want others to adopt before asking them to adopt them.  Because, people will believe not what they
hear leaders say, but what they see their leaders consistently do.  This also refers to the leader as an ethical
role model.  The leader must not only
inspire others but also uses his/her office to advance institutional goals
rather than personal ones.  Great leaders
should serve as an example to others.  In
respect to this they should be committed to set an example for others by
behaving in ways that are consistent with their stated values and to clarify
values by finding their voice and affirming shared ideas.  The model the way practice is described as
consisting of the establishment of principles that are concerned with the way
people (including constituents, peers, colleagues, and customers) should be
treated, and the way goals should be followed. 
Leaders create standards of excellence and then set an example for
others to follow.  Since the prospect of
complex change can overwhelm people and stifle action, leaders set interim
goals so that people followers can achieve small “wins “as they work toward
larger objectives. Leaders also unravel bureaucracy when it impedes action;
they put up signposts when people are unsure of where to go or how to get
there; and they create opportunities for victory (Kouzes and Prosner, 2002).

Inspiring a shared vision

Inspiring a vision involves looking at the future with passion in order
to make a difference and persuade others to own this vision.  Inspiring a shared vision is an important
aspect of leadership because leaders are expected to create and communicated
organizational direction (Snee and Hoeri, 2004).

The “inspire a shared vision “practice was describes as being when
followers believe passionately that their leader can make a difference.  Leaders envision the future, creating an
ideal and unique image of waht the organization can become.  Through their magnetism and quiet persuasion,
leaders enlist others in their dreams. 
Leaders breathe life into their visions and get people to see exciting
possibilities for the future (Kouzes and Prosner, 2002).

Inspiring shared vision is vital for bringing people in any organization
together to foster a commitment to a shared future they seek to create. Both
visionary and transformational leaders passionately believe that they can make
a difference by envisioning the future and creating an ideal and unique image
of what the organization can become. 
They inspire such a vision in their followers with a positive and
hopeful outlook.  They generate
enthusiasm and excitement for the common vision from others through genuineness
and skillful use of metaphors, symbols, positive language, and personal energy
(Kouzes and Prosnes, 1995, 2002).

Challenge the process

Challenging the process suggests that leaders shouldn’t be content to do
“business as usual”. It includes encouraging others to think and take
risk.  Leaders thrive on and learn from
adversity and difficult situations.  They
are risk takers who regard failure as a useful chance to learn and innovate if
not caused by poor performance. 
Effective leaders are also early adopters of innovation.  They seek out things that appear to work and
then insist that they are improved. 
Kouzes and Prosner (2002) describe the challenge to the process practice
as being the search for opportunities to change the status quo.  Leaders look for innovative ways to improve
the organization.  In doing so, they
experiment and take risks.  For
transformational leaders, challenging the process is a way of life.  By either creating new ideas, leaders show
willingness to challenge the system so as to turn these ideas into actions and
to get new products, processes, and services (Kouzes and Prosner, 1995, 2002).

Enabling others to act

Enabling others to act is fostering collaboration and empowerment.  It refers to leaders involving others in
planning and giving them freedom of choice in the decision-making process.  Enabling others to act allows followers to do
their job and to realize their full potential. 
Transformational leaders strive to create an atmosphere of trust and
human dignity and to help each person feel capable and powerful.  They consider the needs and interests of
others and let them feel as if they carry ownership and responsibility in the
organization.  Kouzes and Prosner (2002)
describe the  “enable others to  act ” practice as a means of fostering
collaboration and building spirited teams. 
Leaders actively involve others. 
They understand that mutual respect is what sustains extraordinary
efforts; they strive to create an atmosphere of trust and human dignity. They
strengthen others, making each person feel capable and powerful.

Encouraging the heart

People often need encouragement and motivation to achieve the goals set
by the organization.  Successful leaders
have high expectations for themselves and their employees.  Their credibility is based on their record of
achievements, dedication, and daily demonstrations of what and how things need
to be done.  By influencing employee
motivation, leaders attach rewards and recognition to job performance.

Exemplary or visionary leaders play a special role in the celebrating of
individual or group achievements, because they are the most prominent
personality in the organization and serve as role models.  By celebrating achievements together, leaders
let people feel that they are part of the group and part of something
significant.  When leaders encourage
their employees through recognition and celebration, they inspire them to
perform better.  In order to keep hope
and determination alive, leaders recognize the contributions that individuals
make.  In every winning team, the members
need to share in the rewards of their efforts, so leaders celebrate
accomplishments.  Leaders make people
feel like heroes (Kouzes and Prosner, 1995, 2002).

The study used Kouzes and Prosner’s transformational leadership model to
assess the leader’s practices.  In other
words, in this study the degree of the leaders’ effectiveness was investigated
in terms of the above-presented five best practices of transformational
leadership model. 

Garwe (2014) analyzed the indicators determining provision of quality
higher education in state and private universities and how they are influenced
by institutional leadership. This study identified six major issues that
university Vice Chancellors had grapple with in order to ensure quality
educational provision.  One issue was
providing effective leadership.  In
conclusion, the study revealed the need for university leaders to embrace
changes and work with their staff to achieve institutional goals.  The results confirmed the hypothesis that
effective leadership will have a positive impact on service quality in
universities.  This will thus impact on
the competitive advantage which, in turn, will then lead to the long-term
sustainability of the institution.

Al-Safran, (2014) studied on the possible relationship between the
school outcome and its administration leadership style.  The two indicators are used to measure the
school outcome are the students ‘academic achievement and the principals ‘influence
on the school’s curriculum.  The
students’ academic achievement is a direct measure of the school outcome, while
the school curriculum is an indirect indicator.

Medical Technology Education

In the Philippines, Medical Technology was introduced by the 26th
Medical Laboratory of the 6th United States Army before the end of
World War II in September 1945.  The
Laboratory was established at 208 Quiricada St. Sta. Cruz, Manila where the
Punlic Health Laboratory is presently located.

In February of 1945, the training of high school graduates to work as
laboratory technician started. However, in June 1945, the 6th United
States Army left the laboratory. 

It was on October 1, 1945 when the medical laboratory now also known as
the Public Health was formally organized under the leadership of Dr. Pio de
Roda.  The training of medical
technicians started in 1974 under Dr. Pio de Roda and Dr. Prudencia C. Sta.
Ana.  In 1954, Dr. Pio de Roda instructed
Dr. Sta. Ana to prepare a syllabus of training for the medical technicians that
the formal six-month training period was required and certificate of completion
was give to successful trainees.  Later
on, Dr. Tirso Briones joined the two doctors in the training program at the
Public Health Laboratory.

Medical Technology Education in the country is continuously
evolving.  In the advent of technology,
changing socials needs, providing health care services and new attitude towards
hospitalizations brought about the changes in the role of medical technologists.  Recognizing the important role of medical
technologists in the health care systems along with other health professionals,
therefore, professionals should continually update their knowledge, and values
to keep up with the constant pace of change.

Educational institutions for the medical technology profession are also
affected by these changes. There is a continuous updating of curriculum to
conform to the changes in the profession while maintaining or improving the
quality of education.  However, the maintenance
of high standards of academic excellence and the production of competent
graduates are two of the major problems encountered by higher education
institutions (HEIs).

Pasia, et. Al. (2014) mentioned, with academic excellence in mind,
schools submit for voluntary accreditation as practiced today along with
improving performance in licensure examinations.  The former Professional Regulation
Commissioner Hermogenes Pobre stressed that “every professional is forged on
the anvil of education; he is as competent as the kind of education with which
he is fashioned.” Therefore, providing quality education is a primordial goal
of every institution.

Pasia, et. Al. (2014) At San Pedro College, success in licensure
examination is an important outcome measure in assessing the effectiveness of
an educational program.  While San Pedro
College (SPC) MT graduates comprise most of the work force in both public and
private laboratory health facilities in Davao City, for the last five years,
though the school produced topnotchers in the Medical Technologist Licensure
Examination given by the PRC, it is observed that the performance of the
graduates is not consistently at par or above the national passing percentage.  School performance in licensure examination
is an important outcome measure assessing the effectiveness of an educational
program, Hence graduates of HEIs in Medical Technology are challenged to
perform in the medical technology licensure exam at par with the national
passing percentage.  Graduates of an institution
with a high passing percentage are regarded as highly competent because of the
kind of education they get from the institution (dela Pena et al., 2007)

Accreditation System for Higher Education Institutions in the

        According to the CHED Memorandum Order
(CMO) No.1 (2005), also known as the Revised Policies and Guidelines on
Voluntary Accreditation in Aid of Quality and Excellence in Higher Education,
emphasizes the encouragement of “the use of voluntary non-governmental
accreditation systems”, which lines out a set of policies in full support of an
accrediting agency’s practices towards regulation.  Two accrediting bodies were stated in the
CMO: FAAP which consists of the Association of Christian Schools, Colleges and
Universities Accrediting Agency, Inc. (ACSU-AAI), PAASCU, and PACU-COA and the
National Network of Quality Accrediting Agencies (NNQAA), which is inclusive of
AACCUP and the Association of Local Colleges and Universities Commission on
Accreditation (ALCUCOA).  All processes,
policies, frameworks, and systems of accreditation created by the
abovementioned bodies must be forwarded for approval to CHED.

        As mandated by the Higher Education Act
of 1994, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS) was divided
into three sectors, one which was the Commission on Higher Education
(CHED).  CHED was then given the autonomy
to become the supreme organization over and above accrediting agencies (Arcelo,
2003; Corpus, 2003).

Accreditation Practices

        Accreditation of an HEI in the
Philippines merits autonomy, while other forms of quality assessment merit
funding and subsidy, as opposed to what other countries practice.  As aforementioned, accreditation of
individual programs and/or institutions is voluntary on the part of the HEIs,
albeit being highly encouraged by CHED (Padua, 2003).  Each accrediting agency follows slightly
different practices from the rest. 
Ordonez and Arcelo (2003) illustrate the procedure taken by accrediting
agencies.  Generally, all agencies
subscribe to two steps in accreditation, which are (1) self-study by the
assigned department for accreditation, typically in the form of a survey which
is tailor-fit to the HEIs framework, and (2) an on-site assessment by
representatives from the accrediting agency.



Synthesis of Related Literature and Studies

        The above mentioned review of related
literature and studies showed that in many points different leadership styles,
practices, skills, and behavior affect the performance of an organizations such
as public and private schools, colleges, and universities.  This study is focused on the description of
leadership styles of the deans and program heads and how they affect the
performance of the school, colleges, and universities offering medical
technology education in the country.

        The study conducted by Kedir and Geleta is
seen closely related to the present study to which it dealt with the practices
of transformational leadership in technical vocational institution and training
institutions.  In the same study, the
five leadership practices were used to assess how effective the leaders were.
Another similar study done by Go and Je that leadership impacts significantly
on employee performance and participative leadership styles helps to improve
performance among employee.

        Moreover, in a study by Al-Safran et al
showed that there were direct and indirect relationships between principal’s
leadership and school outcome which is related to the present study for which
it focused on leadership styles and the school outcomes.




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