The major problem which is faced by the world is the huge cost of energy, specifically electricity. A lot of research is going on to save the energy. About 20% of the world’s total electrical energy is consumed by lighting. Hence there is a need of an efficient lighting system which can save a lot of energy.
Classic outdoor light systems like streetlight, skywalks, and corridor are widely spread out in and around the world. But these are less efficient regarding cost and electricity consumption as a whole. Such systems are controlled with photocell/LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) or astronomical timers. These light systems lack remote connection and information monitoring on energy consumption. If faulty happened the outdated system cannot find it on real time.
1.1. Need for Smart lighting Systems
Smart lighting systems commonly use a mesh based networking system in which each smart light point (smart bulb) wirelessly connects to its nearest neighbor network. Such networks are controlled by a hub which plugs into a router component there by enabling all the connected network devices – like phone or tablet to communicate with the light points.
These smart light systems are also accessorized with additional components like dimmer switches or motion sensors and detectors. The smart lighting systems enabled with networked technology represent an interesting opportunity for cities and communities which intend to get smarter. The key benefits are –
• Rapid reduction in energy and maintenance costs
• Increased public safety from improved lighting systems
• Enhanced traffic due to increased visibility of hazards
• Measurable environmental impact with respect to reduced energy consumption
Fig.1 Smart Lighting unit
Additional opportunities that can be acquired –
• Portable broadband connectivity
• Traffic signal controls
• Traffic management
• Electric vehicle charging stations
• Environmental monitoring
• Public safety with video cameras
Tunnel Lighting Systems
The uncontrolled lighting systems increases loss of energy in various places like Streets Tunnels, Subways, Sky walks, campus of schools ,colleges, offices, stadiums etc. Among all these places quite a large amount of energy loss is associated in Tunnels because most of the times there will not be any vehicles and the lights are in ON condition all day long.
A tunnel is an underground pass way which is enclosed except at the openings for the entrance and exit. These pass ways and underpasses plays a major role in shortening the travelling time. Tunnels are found everywhere nowadays and no matter what they are used for they lack natural light and therefore need effective lighting solutions.
Hence the concept of automated tunnel lighting systems can be used to reduce energy consumption and maintenance costs. To save valuable power, the ON/OFF switches of the tunnel lights can be remotely re-programmed according to requirement.
Use of Intelligent interconnection between devices will benefit to optimize the energy needs by chase the changes in intensity outside and counting on traffic density. The system deigned utilizes wireless communication techniques and which provides real time surveillance of lamps may be individual or in group.
The system may be wont to discover the faulty lamps within the management monitor and exhibit energy consumption of every lamp node. Also any number of new light points can be added to the existing infrastructure with simple and easy installation and modifications.
To provide safe passage from one finish to the opposite sufficient illumination levels should be achieved day and night, throughout the year. Sudden variations in lighting levels when entering or exiting a tunnel is not entertained.
At night the lighting levels should be variable resistor, while during the day they need to be multiplied and concentrated more at the tunnel entrance.
Luminance and illumination levels, glare and light uniformity all play a big role when designing the luminaires for this purpose as they affect people’s safety.
The significant light-weight distinction between daylight and tunnel brightness causes motorists to abate as they approach the tunnel entrance. This phenomenon, known as the “black hole” effect, can be minimized by providing enough light at the immediate tunnel entrance, or the threshold zone to allow time for eye adaptation.
Smart tunnel lighting systems provide the safe drive feel for the motorists. Different tunnels and underpasses demand completely different tunnel lighting configurations. With smart tunnel logic and flexible tunnel lighting systems optimum lighting solutions can be adapted by the customers as and when required.
Fig.2 Underpass Subway
Description of the Internship
3.1 The organization – Signify (Philips Lighting)
Signify is the new company name of Philips lighting. It is the world’s greatest leader in the field of lighting. The energy efficient lighting products, systems and services enable the customers to enjoy a superior quality of light. This system satisfies people’s requirements in all the aspects to provide safe and comfortable livelihood.
Signify enhances public spaces, work places and homes by innovative lighting solutions. All lighting products, systems and services enable our customers to enjoy a unique quality of light and make people’s lives smart and organized.
Philips lighting has been at the forefront of innovation for over 120 years.it uses the transformative power of light to make people more comfortable and productive – by providing high quality light in public places, professional spaces and at home.
Philips pioneered the development of high-quality, energy-efficient LED lighting. It aims at taking lighting into a fully digital world that connects people, places and devices. Philips is taking lighting beyond illumination with connected lighting innovations for the home, retail environments, offices, cities and more.
As the global leader in lighting, Philips Lighting is well positioned to capture growth opportunities:
• Leading global customer and market positions
• World class innovation and design capabilities
• Deep application and systems integration expertise
• Unmatched distribution strength and brand
It aims at achieving new levels of energy efficiency through intelligent lighting control. The connected lighting systems use knowledge of the illuminated space to deliver the right level of light in the right place at the right time.
A company with a purpose –
The purpose is to unlock the extraordinary potential of light for brighter lives and a better world. The system achieves this through living by values, innovation, passion for sustainability and desire to transform people’s lives.
The company provides the lighting solutions in the following business fields:
3.2 Role as an Intern
As an intern I was deployed in the outdoor lighting systems which works with the design of street lighting, tunnel lighting and stadium lighting.
I belong to the team of Amplight which deals with the design and development of the embedded units of the lighting systems. As a part of this team I learnt about the process and operation of the street lighting systems along with its control process.
The outdoor lighting systems along with the street lighting systems deals with various other aspects like Tunnel and Underpass lighting Systems, Sports(stadiums) and recreational outdoor lighting systems.
As a part of R&D process, design and development of Standalone Server for underpass light controller was my assigned task.
3.3 Current Smart Lighting Systems – Methodology
The present projects dealt with the outdoor lighting systems is based on the server concept. All the individual street lights are connected together to form a group of lighting units. In the other way round these light units are technically called as light points. These light points are connected to a controller unit which controls a particular location.
Technically the controller unit is called as Amplight controller. The controller unit is provided with various interconnected components like microcontrollers, IC Chip, relays, I/O pins, DALI component etc. for the optimum operation process.
Each controller unit controls an area of lighting systems. This is further connected with relays and other sensor components for the identification of the motion sensing features provided with uninterrupted working process.
The light points connected to the controller form a grid or mesh type network to communicate with each other and with the central controller unit. Major network system are connected with various subsystems for the error free and uninterrupted service provision. The sub systems connected to the network are termed as child components which takes the role of the operating controller unit during maintenance and rectification process.
Controller units are connected to share the load and operate individually during emergency conditions. All the information about the functioning and working of lights along with the details about the power consumption, intensity, dimming process etc. is gathered by the central server unit. The controller unit reverts or operate back only with the information obtained from the server. Hence the server is called as the central operating component. This type of process is more evident if a large number of controller units are used to operate the light points.
The designed interconnected systems also provide with the addition and deletion of the controller units and light points whenever needed. Amplight controller connect to Amplight server over GPRS or Ethernet for:
Fig.3 Amplight System
3.4 Proposed System
The proposed system aims at developing a standalone server for the underpass light controller. The standalone server refers to the independent device which operates on its own without any feedback from the server or a centralized unit. The standalone server is independent of any other group or an interconnected system.
Associated benefits of the standalone server component includes –
• Elimination of Cloud or centralized system
• Easy Commissioning
• Controlling the light inside and outside the underpass
• Fault detection and rectification
• 24/7 operating light sensors
• Supports twilight schedule (identification of the sunset and sunrise info based in latitude and longitude values
• Secured debugging process
The basic hardware components associated with the design of Standalone server includes –
• Controller Unit (Amplight)
• Coded mains
? Controller Unit
The hardware controller component used at signify is called as Amplight. Amplight is a streetlight control and management system. The system monitors faults and critical conditions in the control cabinets (Amplight control systems) and allows customer to control the cabinets on an individual, group or system level. The typical application is shown in the following Figure 4.
Fig.4 Amplight System Application
An Amplight solution consists of:
I. The Amplight Web application that runs on a central server: It is used for monitoring and controlling the system. The application is browser-based and can be accessed from any computer with internet connection.
II. One or more photocells installed at central locations.
III. Amplight modules are installed in each cabinet.
The modules have three important functions:
• To serve as the communication link between the Amplight Web server and the control cabinet.
• To turn on, off or dim the streetlights according to the commands from the Amplight Web server.
• To detect error conditions in the electrical installations in the control cabinets.
Amplight – Cabinet Controller CPU Module
The Amplight CPU module is the central processing unit in the Amplight Module System. Equipped with a powerful Cortex [email protected] running embedded Linux with 256MByte Flash / 128Mbytes RAM, the module monitors and controls all other moderate direct communication between the modules takes place by means of an ABus interface, which is based on the industrially proven RS485 technology. The ABus is also used for power supply between modules.
The Amplight CPU module serves as a WAN communications and data concentrator module. Communication with central server takes place via 3G, 2G, SMS or Ethernet. The CPU module has the ability to automatically switch between different available communications’ carriers in order to provide stable and reliable communication. New carrier types like, e.g. WIFI, WIMAX or others can be implemented later (using the USB or the Ethernet port on the module) to obtain the best most reliable and cheapest communication in the future.
Data are either delivered to the server immediately or stored locally in the built-in flash memory or external Micro SD card until scheduled delivery. Software and configurations are updated remotely from the server and stored on the Amplight CPU module enabling it to autonomously execute tasks, e.g. turn the streetlight on/off or collect meter readings based on configurations setup by the user.
Voltage values on all three phases of the main supply are monitored by the Amplight Gen2 CPU module. If the module is installed together with backup power (Battery Module), the Amplight Gen2 CPU will be supplied with backup power via the ABus in the event of power failure. This enables the Amplight CPU module to store data and send a main power failure alarm to the central server before it shuts down safely.
Hardware Architect Design Specification
Fig.5 Controller Schematic Representation
MSP430F5419A is used for field control and communication with other external modules through ABus. WP8548-G is mainly responsible for uplink communication. The communication between WP8548-G and MSP430F5419A is through 2-wire (RXD/TXD) UART.
? Coded Mains
The coded mains is a circuit component of the lighting system which plays a major role in the connection of the interconnected communication lighting systems. The data which is transferred formed on end to the other end of the system takes the help of codded mains unit for the power transmission process.
It also acts as a light dimming component (dimmer) apart from ON and OFF process of the system. The dimming process in the system controls the intensity of the light whenever needed and operates according. This process also contributes for the energy efficient operation.
A GPS (Global Positioning System) unit is basically a navigation device which is provided in the light points or the controller units for tracking the device movement and the location identification process. It helps majorly in obtaining the time information of the associated system.
A photometer is an instrument which is used to measure the intensity of the light. It is also used ti measure various optical properties of light which includes illuminance, irradiance, absorption, scattering, reflection, fluorescence, phosphorescence and luminescence.
Fig. 6 Software Architecture
The above Fig.6 depicts the Software Architecture of the system. The basic working software platform is based on Linux operating system. The system utilizes the safe and secure platform in the Amplight system and controller unit.
Apart from the basic framework of the software architecture the developed system should have an embedded unit over lapped with the modulated components.
The basic project plan associated with design of a standalone Underpass Lighting controller includes –
• Development of a server inside the control unit (Amplight)
• Decoupling of all the component that are connect to the centralized system (Cloud)
• Independent operation of the whole connected system without any dependency on external units
• Design and development of secured working component
• Fault detection and rectification of the device whenever needed
6.1 Weekly Work Progress
Aug 13th to 17th
• Overview about the company – Signify (Philips Lighting)
• Details on the lighting products and components
• Information on IOT based Lighting Systems
Aug 20th to 24th
• Deployed to the Outdoor Lighting team
• Assignment of a project mentor
• Interaction with the team members
Aug 27th to 31st
• Study tasks on various Outdoor Lighting Systems
• Study process on the available lighting designs and their operation
Sept 3rd to 7th
• Understand of basic operation of the Linux Operating Systems
• Study task and working on Linux Commands
Sept 10th to 21st
• Understanding of Virtual Box and Installation process
• Deployment of Linux OS in the Virtual Box
• Installation of the required software packages in the terminal
Sept 24th to Sep 28th
• Defining the problem statement by the mentor
• Study task on the Amplight controller component – Hardware unit
• Gathered information on the basic operation of the centralized server based street light control systems
• Study task on Tunnel based Lighting Systems
Oct 2nd to 5th
• Study task on the open source web browsers
• Understanding of operating nature of different web browser
Oct 8th to 12th
• Choice of Webserver – Nginx
• Study task and understanding of webserver Nginx
• Configuration and deployment Nginx webserver in Linux Platform
Oct 15th to 19th
• Continued with configuration of the Nginx webserver
• Linking the webpage to the server
• Study task on Lua Programming Language
Oct 22nd to 26th
• Continued study task on Lua Programming Language
• Linking the Nginx configuration with Lua Language
Oct 29th to Nov 2nd
• Study task on HTML and webpage design
• Implementation process of webpage designing
• Design and Development of server based template webpage
• Modification and fine tuning the designed template
Nov 5th to Nov 9th
• Creation of form templates
• Deploying with Nginx webserver and Lua modules
Nov 12th to 16th
• Lua parsing the values and data to the form template
• Design of Real-time Data capturing
Nov 19th to 23rd
• Continued with the Real- time Data capturing
• Server based template creation
The three month internship at Signify (Philips Lighting) enhanced the knowledge about the IOT based Smart lighting system designs. The basic infrastructure of the street lighting system designed by the company in more advanced and Eco-friendly.
The design system emphasize on the optimum utilization of energy and lighting systems for economic prospects and the standard living process. Tunnel lighting systems are constantly being improved with new technologies, techniques, and breakthroughs to ensure a safe and comfortable driving environment.
Standalone Underpass Smart Lighting Systems strives to develop an independent lighting control systems eliminating the cloud concept as a whole. The design and development of it reduces the dependency on a centralized unit and its decision process.
It also plays a major role in the individual analysis and control of small geographical area without the server based communication systems there by reducing the cost on the web services and its deployment.