There may be a few reasons why some places may have variations of gene pools; migration and the evolution of different ethnicities has created a diversification among cultural groups. So as a result, this lab experiment was conducted to determine which of the sample groups are either closely related or significantly different. Methods Each student within the Science 200 class of Fall 2012 firstly collected the data source sporadically throughout the school campus. The data was collected by the dents engaging themselves in asking various students a range of questions in reference to Blood Type, Place of Birth and Ethnicity etc.
To avoid duplication within the data source, the students in question were asked whether or not they took this survey before. After the data was collected, it was compiled, uniformed and sorted in order to acquire the required information that was needed to conduct this experiment successfully. For the experiment, all of the SST. Thomas Black, all of the USA, and all of the Hispanic ethnicity were extracted in order to mind the allele frequency of each blood type for the respective groups.
Within the compiled data source, there were a few ethnicities that were classified as “African-American” or “French/Black” which was then changed to the classification of Black for the sample group. There were also ethnicities that were “Black/ Hispanic” which was classified as “Hispanic”. There were a series of calculations that were carried out within this experiment. The Phenotype frequencies needed to calculate the Allele frequencies and the calculations of such Allele frequencies were all done within Microsoft Excel.
There was also the help from two online calculators; the Quadratic formula calculator, which solved for “p” when placed within the formula format of (Ax+Box+C). The other calculator was the Chi-Square calculator, which found the p-value, needed to prove if the sample sets were significantly different or not. Results This experiment was conducted to show whether or not SST. Thomas Black and USA SST. Thomas Black and the Hispanic ethnicity are truly individual populations or interpolations. It is represented with two detailed tables and two figures. The hypotheses that were examined are:
SST. Thomas Black vs… USA HI: Allele frequencies of SST. Thomas Black are independent of allele frequency of USA. HO: Allele frequency of SST. Thomas Black and USA are the same. Table 1. Blood type showing a comparison of SST. Thomas Black vs… USA Region I PIG I RI P-Value SST Black | 0. 14 | 0. 17 | 0. 69 | 0. 0088 | USIA 0. 24 | 0. 19 | 0. 57 | As shown and proven in Table 1, the allele frequencies of SST. Thomas Black are independent of the allele frequency of USA. These results as shown were acquired from calculating these allele frequencies using the quadratic formula calculator.
The results varied considerably for each blood type of the groups as seen for both sample sizes of SST. Thomas Black with results for p=. 14, q=. 17 and r=. 69 and USA with results p=. 24, q=. 19 and r=. 57. As for the HO, this will be rejected due to the statistical evidence that both the allele frequencies for SST. Thomas Black and USA does not equal the same. The p-value for Table 1 when calculated using the chi-square calculator resulted to be statistically significant; when compared to the criteria it is less than 0. 05. As result, there is a 0% chance that the difference between SST.
Thomas Black show some possibility that they may be equal. The p-value for Table 2, when calculated using the chi- square calculator, depicts to be higher than the criteria of 0. 05, which makes this difference to be considered not quite statistically significant. Therefore there is a chance that the reason for the possibility of them being equal is only due to a smaller sampling size being used. Chart Showing Allele Frequencies for SST. Thomas Black vs… Hispanic Figure 2 showing Allele frequencies for SST. Thomas Black vs… Hispanic
Discussion and Conclusion The results from the chi-square test shown in Table 1 and 2, which represents HI and H2O respectively, were in accordance with previous predictions. However, the p-value results for Table 2 were not in correlation with the HO in Table 2 due to either random sampling error or a too small of a sample size. Therefore the null hypotheses for SST. Thomas Black vs… Hispanic will have to be accepted. The p-value illustrated in Tablet was the only one that showed that the results were statistically significant. The p-value result seen in Table 2 on the other hand was to statistically significant.