AR Mobile App in Hiragana (ARH)
NAME:Lai Shiaw Jan
SUPERVISOR:Puan Roznim binti Mohamad Rasli
1.1 Project Introduction
Foreign language learning is not a new phenomenon in Malaysia nowadays. It has been concerned by the Malaysian government since 1960s, where have offered foreign language courses at the university level and at the school level. By learning the foreign language, Malaysia government has its own mission of equipping Malaysia into a developing nation that can face the challenges of globalization.
The implication of government mission before 1966, previously Japanese language was offered at local universities as an elective subject. Then it was slowly introduced into secondary schools curriculum in the early 1980s. It became increasingly important after the former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad introduced the “Dasar Pandang Timur” in July 1981.
As a result from that program, in terms of education, the first Japanese language institution in Malaysia was established in 1982 at the University of Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur while in 1992, the second institution was established at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. The institute offers a preparatory program that equips students with intensive Japanese language skills before furthering their studies to Japan in various fields. Until now, there are 18 Japanese language institutions in 15 universities in Malaysia. At the school level, until 2006, there were 59 schools, either full or single, offering Japanese language courses.
1.2 Research Background
Hiragana is the basic of Japanese phonetic alphabet which represents every sound in the Japanese language. Together with the Katakana and Kanji, they represent the Japanese writing system. There are a set of 46 hiragana symbols in Japanese, each symbols has it’s sound representation but does not contains independent meaning. Hiragana is used to write native Japanese words which do not have Kanji character. It is also function in a wide variety of grammatical purposes in the language.
Japanese Communication Language is one of the subject that offered by the UPSI which can be optionally taken as credit or audit class by UPSI’s students. It can be said as a new subject or language for the students because they not frequently use it in their daily life. In Japanese Communication Language class, it consists of three levels with different learning contents. Students can only take the next level after they pass their current level.
In order to help the students easily learn the Japanese’s phonetic written character which is Hiragana, an AR technology was applied to it. The design of the learning process is focused on the Hiragana characters which include writing, spelling and supported by examples.
The teaching and learning process will become more effective as users can simply use their mobile devices to scan at the character marker based by using the flash card, then the writing, spelling and example will pop out. Therefore, people will be encouraged and become more attracted in learning Hiragana.
This project is intended to develop a mobile app with the combination of Augmented Reality (AR). The development of AR mobile apps was specially for the students who take the Japanese Communication Language class in Sultan Idris Education University (UPSI).
1.3 Problem Statement
Nowadays, with the advancement of technology, people find that learning in a traditional ways are very dull and not interesting since there are so many alternatives technology based entertainment which are more interesting than the traditional ways (Parhizkar et al, 2011).
Learning Japanese language in Malaysia as well as native language is not an easy thing especially in an environment that does not encourage the use of that type of language. In fact, the limitation of knowledge in linguistic leads to student difficulty to master the language even though they have studied it for several semesters.
Thus, based on the identification of problems, an interactive and interesting mobile application with the hybridization of AR technology will be developed due to attract users to learn fast and recognize Hiragana easily.
Based on the research problem statements, there are three (s) objectives that have been identified and listed as follows:
To identify the requirements needed (requirement analysis) for the development of AR-based mobile application for Hiragana learning.
To develop the mobile apps of AR in Hiragana to learn Japanese language.
To evaluate the developed mobile apps of AR in Hiragana in term of functionality, usability and acceptability.
Do the AR mobile apps has been used to learn Hiragana before?
How to teach user to learn Hiragana much easier by using the AR mobile apps?
How to ensure that the functionality of AR mobile apps is working well?
1.6 Project Scope
The AR-based mobile application for Hiragana learning is developed due to enhance the learning process by applying the AR technology into it. The AR models will only be displayed on the mobile screen when the user scans the Hiragana’s text but they cannot touch it because it is virtual. The Unity software and Vuforia software were chosen for this AR mobile application development.
ADDIE methodology comprises of five main phases namely analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation has been carefully selected as the main methodology throughout this study. The evaluation will be conducted in UPSI targeting students that take the Japanese Communication Language class either in Level 1, 2, or 3. About 20 respondents will be randomly selected among them to answer the main instrument which is questionnaires that built based on the theory Technology Acceptance Models (TAM).
1.7 Importance of Project
This application is developed as a teaching and learning tool for the use of teachers and students in UPSI. In UPSI, students have the choices whether to take the Japanese Communication Language class as an audit class (result is not included in the cumulative grade point average) or credit class (result is included in the cumulative grade point average).
1.7.1 The UPSI’s students that taking the Japanese Communication Language class
AR technology can transform each of the Japanese Communication Language class into a surprising learning environment that will keep students more interested and motivated to participate in and find out how their reality will be transformed during the lesson. Every class can be a new way or journey where students can discover this new AR world and all the learning content that hidden within this AR mobile app.
Students can totally participate in learning new information. Students are able to access the models on their own devices by using this AR application. By viewing those augmented models, students can gain a better understanding on the Hiragana characters that they are studying. This is a fun way to engage the UPSI students and reinforce the Hiragana character they’ve seen during the class lectures.
1.7.2 The UPSI’s lecturer that teaching the Japanese Communication Language Class
The lecturers whom were teaching the Japanese Communication Language class can change the teaching style from traditional “chalk and talk” ways to a new technology based style which is by integrating AR. The traditional ways may seem a little bit bored to students with the printed paper about the content of lecture. Lecturer can have an initiative ways by using the AR mobile apps to teach Hiragana. Thus, students will be attracted and feel fun while learning the Hiragana.
As a conclusion, there are several objectives that have been identified based on the research problems. The research questions also have been included in this chapter. Besides hat, the project scope also have been discussed which consist of development methodology, evaluation methodology, software and hardware. The importance of project for the UPSI’s students who were taking the Japanese class and UPSI’s lecturer who were teaching the class also have been discussed in this chapter. The next chapter will discuss in depth on the previous literature regarding on this study.
This chapter is about the literature review on the past projects. Information was collected from the journals that written by the researchers since five years ago.
2.2 Augmented Reality
AR is a technology that allows computer generated virtual imagery to exactly overlay physical objects in real time. Unlike the virtual reality, the user is completely immersed in the virtual environment while the AR allows the user to interact with the virtual images using real objects in a seamless way.
There is 2 technique that involves in AR which is marker and markerless. Markerless AR are more advanced marker based AR involves image recognition with or without a custom marker. Custom marker need to be builds in order to use for marker AR.
(Figure2.1: Marker Based AR)(Figure 2.2: Markerless AR)
2.2.1 Augmented Reality in Education
Augmented Reality technology is not a new issue. It has been used in fields such as: military, medicine, engineering design, robotic, tele-robotic, manufacturing, maintenance and repair applications, consumer design, psychological treatments, etc. (Azuma, Baillot, Behringer, ; Feiner, 2001). Displaying information by using virtual things that the user cannot directly detect with his own senses can enable a person to interact with the real world in ways never before possible. We can change the position, shape, and/or other graphical features of virtual objects with interaction techniques augmented reality supports. Using our fingers or motions of handheld devices such as shake and tilt we have an ability to manipulate virtual objects, as well as to physical objects in the real world.
Augmented Reality can be applied for learning, entertainment, or edutainment by enhancing a user’s perception of and interaction with the real world. User can move around the three-dimensional virtual image and view it from any vantage point, just like a real object. The information conveyed by the virtual objects helps users perform real world tasks. Tangible Interface Metaphor is one of the important ways to improve learning. This property enables manipulation of three-dimensional virtual objects simply by moving real cards without mouse or keyboard.
Augmented Reality can also be used to enhance collaborative tasks. It is possible to develop innovative computer interfaces that merge virtual and real worlds to enhance face-to-face and remote collaboration. These augmented reality applications are more similar to natural face-to-face collaboration than to screen based collaboration (Kiyokawa, et al., 2002).
Web technologies and internet are popular, as a practical situation people still prefer reading books instead of facing screens and textbooks are still widely used. Another interesting application of this technology is in augmented reality textbooks. These books are printed normally but point a webcam to the book brings visualizations and interactions designed. This is possible by installing special software on a computer, using special mobile apps or a web site. This technology allows any existing book to be developed into an augmented reality edition after publication. Using 3D objects and views, miscellaneous and imaginative media, simulations with different types of interactions is the easiest ways of connecting the two isolated worlds. Through the use of Augmented Reality in printed book pages, textbooks will became dynamic sources of information. In this way people with no computer background can still have a rich interactive experience.
2.2.2 Augmented Reality in Mobile Application
Simply put, mobile augmented reality is AR that people can take with them wherever they go. Most specifically, this means that the hardware required to implement an AR application is something that people take with them wherever they go. There is an important distinction between mobile augmented reality and portable augmented reality.
Portable augmented reality uses technology that can move from place to place. A desk-side computer with a monitor is somewhat portable in that it can be moved from one place to another relatively easily. A laptop computer is even more portable. If the batteries are charge, then people can carry it easily from place to place.
A smartphone, however, is a truly mobile device. It fits in people’s pocket and is easy to operate wherever they are, even if they are walking or otherwise engaged. Likewise, most tablet devices are mobile devices in that they can carry them easily wherever they go. They are lightweight and people can operate them while walking.
There is another class of devices that needs to be considered. Handheld gaming consoles and e-readers are easy to carry around. They may or may not provide the technological support for AR at the current time, but these and portable tablets seem to be encroaching on each other’ territory in terms of the applications they run. That is, tablets are running e-reader applications and games, and game consoles are evolving toward doing more things than just games. E-readers are doing more things than just serving as e-readers and are becoming more “tablet like.” The big distinction between these types of devices and smartphones and tablets comes down to whether people would likely be carrying the devices with them anyway or not. That is, many people would carry a smartphone whether or not it had anything to do with augmented reality. Some people might carry a gaming console on a day-to-day basis, and some would not. These are clearly portable devices, but the real win in mobile augmented reality comes when the participant is not required to carry anything more than he or she would have been carrying anyway.
Many head-mounted displays are mobile in nature but are still rather cumbersome, and most people do not wear them on a daily basis. Newer glasses-oriented displays are more likely to be worn on a daily basis and thus make a mobile AR system that provides the capabilities of a head-mounted display a possibility. With contact lens displays or lightweight glasses displays, the mobile AR experience can become totally seamless with your everyday life. Applications that currently require you to “look through” a tablet or a smartphone become much more compelling when you are not required to “do something” to experience the AR and that “remind you” that you are doing something special in order to experience the augmented content.
2.3 Japanese’s Characters
The Japanese language has three kinds of characters: Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji. The Kanji, Chinese character was brought from the China. Kanji is an ideogram character (to represent meanings), then start to be use as a phonogram (to represent sounds). Kanji is then simplified because it is become more widely to use. This simplified form is called Hiragana. The Hiragana has a roundish shape as shown below.
Table 2.1: Kanji-Hiragana table
The Japanese word order and Chinese word order are very different. The small sized kanji (kun’ten) were placed next to the Kanji to indicate the Japanese word order when reading the classical Chinese. Then, it was simplified and become Katakana. Many of the Katakana were made from apart of Kanji as shown in the table below. Roughly, Katakana has rather straight lines.
Table 2.2: Kanji-Katakana table
The three types of writing system are used in a different ways. Normally, Katakana is used for loanwords and foreign names like ???? (coffee) or ?????? (New York). Most of the contents words are written in Kanji form. The functional words like ?? (to be), particles and some Japanese origin words like ???? (tasty) are written in the Hiragana form. All the three types of writing system can be combined in one sentence as shown below.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? (He is Mr. Miller)
Table 2.3: Detail description for a sentence
(Latin apphabet form) Types of writing system Function/ Meaning
? ka re Kanji He
? waHiragana Topic marker
? ? ? mi ra a Katakana Miller
? ? sa n Hiragana Mr.
? ? de suHiragana is
2.3.1 Japanese’s Hiragana
Hiragana is one of the Japanese writing system which contains of 46 Japanese character.
Figure2.3: Hiragana’s table
(Resource: utsukushiaki.blogspot.my, 2017)
Hiragana has a number of uses in the contemporary Japanese. It is the first writing system that taught to the children. This is because the Hiragana is simpler than the Kanji, and it corresponds to the sounds that they already know. Nowadays, many kid’s books are written entirely in the Hiragana form.
In everyday text, Hiragana is used to write a very short words that either lack of Kanji, or the Kanji is difficult and antiquated. For example:
?? (ko re) meaning “this”
?? (ma de) meaning “until”
Hiragana is used for hold the sentences together. For example: the particles ? (o) and ? (wa), were indicated direct objects and subjects respectively.
?????????•???? (kore wa atarashii b?rupen desu)
The meaning for the sentence above is “This is a new ball pen”.
??? (kore wa) means “this”
The combination of the kanji ? and hiragana ?? forms the adjective ??? (atarashii) meaning “new”.
The phrase ?? (desu) is similar in meaning to “is”.
?????? “b?rupen” or “ball-pen” is a loan word from English. It is written in katakana rather than hiragana, which is the convention for words of foreign origin.
2.3.2 CEFLAGS in UPSI
The Centre for Languages and General Studies (CEFLAGS) is established in the 135th University Senate Meeting, bill 10/2015. On 16 November 2016, CEFLAGS is become fully operational with the appointment of the first Director, Mr. Sasigaran Moneyam. Since 4 January 2016, CEFLAGS has been operating at the Level 3, Block 5 of the Sultan Azlan Shah Campus, UPSI.
CEFLAGS has offered some of the university course which include English language, Malay Language proficiency course. It also offers enrichment courses which involving various type of Asian and European Languages. Inside the enrichment language course, there are offered Japanese Communication, Chinese Communication, Tamil Communication, Arabic Communication, German Communication, French Communication, Spanish Communication, Iban Communication and also Iban Contextual.
CEFLAGS provides the services such as translation, editing and proofreading of academic writing and books. Besides that, CEFLAGS involved in the conducting of research, publication, innovation and community services to enhance the language knowledge and general education among the staffs, students, community and also external agencies.
The mission of the CEFLAGS is to lead in the field of languages and general education through teaching, publications, research, consultancy and services of community in developing human capital that are multilingual and competent to achieve the aspirations of university and nationals. At the same time, the vision of CEFLAGS is to become a progressive and unique Centre of Excellence for Languages and General Studies along with the mission and vision of UPSI.
CEFLAGS provide basic and communicative Japanese language lesson. It contains three levels:
Japanese Communication 1
In level one, it emphasizes the basic skills of Japanese language. Students can learn phonetics system, characters, phrases and also three types of the Japanese writing system which is romaji, hiragana, katakana. It also focuses on the communications skills such as listening, writing, speaking and reading in the Japanese Language.
Japanese Communication 2
This is the continuation from Level one. The basic forms of communication skills will be exposed to the students. A new Japanese writing system which is Kanji also will be exposed to them. In this level, students will learn in the basic to build a sentence, adjective, particle and conjugation.
Japanese Communication 3
This is the continuation from level two. It is more focus on the communicative rules. Students will learn how to communicate in formal and informal situation. At this level, the writing, speaking and reading skills will be emphasizes more to them. Besides that, students will be taught on the Japanese Language grammars.
2.4 Theory Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
TAM was introduced by Fred Davis in 1986 for his doctorate proposal as shown in Figure 2.3. It is deals more specifically with the prediction of the acceptability of an information system.
Figure2.4: Original Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1986)
In this proposal, Davis (1985) suggest that user’s motivation can be explained by the three factors: Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, and Attitude Toward Using the system. He hypothesized that the attitude of a user toward a system was a major determinant of whether the user wil actually use or reject the system. The attitude of the user, in turn, was considered to be influenced by two major beliefs: perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, with the perceived ease of use having a direct influence on perceived usefulness.
TAM is gaining popularity for understanding the relationship between humans and technology through Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use (Oluwole, 2016). Perceived usefulness is defined as being the degree to which a person believes that the uses of a system will improve his performance or action. While the perceived ease of use refers to the degree to which a person believes that the use of a target system will be effortless.
Later development of TAM would include behavioral intention as a new variable that would be directly influenced by the perceived usefulness of a system (Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw, 1989). Davis et al. (1989) suggested that there would be cases when, given a system which was perceived useful, an individual might form a strong behavioral intention to use the system without forming any attitude, thus giving rise to a modified version of TAM model as showed in Figure 2.4.
Figure 2.5: First modified version of TAM (Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw, 1989)
In 1996, the modification made by Davis and Venketesh, the attitude variable is removed as the finding in a study showed that both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were have a direct influence on behavioral intention.
Figure 2.6: Final version of TAM (Venkatesh & Davis, 1996)
An additional change brought to the original TAM model, was the consideration of other factors, referred to as external variables that might influence the beliefs of a person towards a system. External variables typically included system characteristics, user training, user participation in design, and the nature of the implementation process.
Teo (2013) identified various factors that promote the use and acceptance of technology. He enumerates individual differences, social influences, beliefs, attitudes and situational influences as factors that promote the intention to use technology and promote the ability to accept or reject it. In addition, Teo (2013) posited that an individual’s behavior is influenced by an intention to perform the behavior, in other words, the real performance of the behavior is heralded by a person’s behavioral intention to engage in the activity.
2.5 Reviews on Existing Augmented Reality Application
2.5.1 AR Flashcards – Animal Alphabet
Figure 2.7: Application icon for Animal Alphabet
(Source: https://edshelf.com/tool/ar-flashcards-animal-alphabet/, 2017)
This Animal Alphabet got the winner of the 2013 Edublog Award for Best Mobile App. It is available on both of the App Store and Google Playstore devices.
“This app uses augmented reality to engage the students in learning their letters. Highly recommended for early childhood educators and parents!”(TwoGuysandSomeiPads.com)
“It’s definitely unique and a very clever way to get children involved in learning the alphabet and animal names.” (TheiPhoneMom.com)
“Through the use of augmented reality (AR) and flashcards – this app allows your children to learn in a new and exciting way! A new approach to flashcards!” (Digital Mom Blog)
AR Flashcards are a new way to interact and make Flashcards more entertaining for toddlers and preschoolers. With this AR Flashcards, learning will become more fun! When user point their device at the printed flashcard, a beautifully rendered 3D animal will pop up on the screen. Then, user can tap the animal to hear the letter and animal name.
Figure 2.8: User interface for Animal Alphabet
In this application, it contained 26 beautifully rendered animals to help toddler or preschooler to learn the alphabet. User can tap on each of the animals to hear the letter and name of that particular animal. User can tap the screenshot button to save the picture of the beautiful AR animals. Besides that, user also can tap the screen to bring up the focus so that they can adjust their device’s camera to better bring up the animals.
To use this application, user must download and print the flashcard markers that provided in their website. This application only will work in a color flashcard and not functioning when the flashcard in a black and white condition.
The lacks for this application is the view of the animals model cannot in the 360 view. This might causes the user cannot fully enjoyed to use that application to learn alphabets. Besides that, this application is not efficient because the marker only can used the color flashcards in order to functioning the application.
2.5.2 vABC – English Alphabets With Augmented Reality
Figure 2.9: Application icon for vABC(Source: App Store: Assad Karim, 2016)
This vABC application is an application to learn ABC by using augmented reality. It is only available on the App Store for iOS devices. This vABC redefines the educational app experience to learn English alphabets for the children, which is from preschoolers and toddlers to kindergartners. It used AR concepts to help the user to learn ABC with 3D objects in an innovative and interactive way. vABC is a great tool for teaching and it can be a very immersive experience for the children which will surely to help them to remember what they have learned.
By using this application, user can view 3D ABC and 3D models of animals and also objects as examples of these 3D alphabets. It can helps parents and teachers to make learning process become more interactive besides having a fun activity for kids and preschool toddlers.
(Figure 2.10: User interface for vABC)
In this vABC application, the 3D alphabets are displayed in both capital letters and small letters to help users to recognize them. This augmentation provides a complete 360 view, which means the 3D content can be viewed from any angle by either moving their device or workbook. The human voice pronunciation also have been provided for every English letter from A to Z to help parents and teachers to make their children pronounce alphabets correctly. Besides that, the user also can take pictures with the 3D models with the provided camera button.
In order to use this application, user need to download the vABC workbook from the website provided and print it either in colored or black condition. Then, user points their device’s camera on the alphabets in the workbook and view the 3D content and enjoy the experience.
For the lacks of this types of application, it is only applicable for the iOS devices. That means the Android user cannot used this application.
2.5.3 StartAR – Smart learning platform for kids
(Figure 2.11: Application icon StartAR)
(Source: http://www.startar.in/smart-books/abc/, 2018)
StartAR is an AR based book which is only available in Google Playstore. It is the India’s first playable book using the latest app technology. StartAR creates a learning bridge between kids and books through a mobile platform to help them concentrate in books and parents feel hassle-free about their kid’s learning and attention.
With this application, kids become smart, intelligent and easy to care. Nowadays, kids love digital. Therefore, instead of planting them in front of a TV screen or video games, give them the StartAR books can boost their imagination and creativity. StartAR includes learning languages (English and Hindi), general knowledge, counting, colors, wild or water animals, means of transport and many more.
Nowadays, remembering alphabets is now easy for kids using the StartAR ABC book. It can helps them have a better understanding and pronunciation of alphabets because the used of real life objects that is related to them.
(Figure 2.12: User interface for StartAR)
With this StartAr application, user can brings the engagement to home using their Android smartphone. This application turns learning into fun using the revolutionary AR technology with their exclusive books and create a special connection between the books and then the user will always love their books.
For the lacks of this application, it is only augmented the represented objects for each letter. There was do not have a 3D shape letter on their mobile screen compared to the other application which had the augmented letter and represented object shown on the screen.
2.5.4 Augmented Reality Hiragana (ARH)ARH is a mobile application that allowed user to use their own mobile devices to learn the Hiragana. By using this application, user can learn simple and familiar vocabularies of words which start with the respective letter. This is one of the efficient way of teaching hiragana by introduce the user with the familiar word such as if introducing ?, so it should be introduced by showing some example of the word start with an ? such as??? (candy),?? (foot) etc.
When the user get familiar with the word they can compare the letter and realize how that specific letter looks likes. Later on, when the user saw the letter, they will know how it should pronounced. For each alphabet letter, a corresponding 3D model of objects is also presented. For example, for the letter ?, word such as ?? (cat) and its corresponding 3D model is displayed. Finally, user can learn how each letter is drawn by watching an animated view of how the letter is drawn.
Besides that, the human voice pronunciation is provided for every letter in the Hiragana to help user to pronounce each letters correctly. This application will provided a complete 360 view which means the model can be viewed from any angle. User also can take pictures of the 3D models with the provided camera button. In order to use this application, a set or marker based cards will be provided.
2.5.5 Comparison between the Existing Applications
Table below briefly showed that the strengths and weakness of the existing applications.
Table 2.4: Comparison between the existing applications
AR Flashcards vABCStartARARH
X 360 view X Human voice pronunciation Save pictures X Markers Color only Color/ Black & White Color only Color/ Black & White
User guidelines As a conclusion from the table above, the ARH application would combines all the strength of the existing applications and at the same time also covering some of the weakness.
2.6 Reviews on System Development Model
2.6.1 ADDIE Model
Figure 2.12: ADDIE model
(Source: educationaltechnology.net, 2018)
ADDIE model of Instruction Systems Design (ISD) was first developed for the U.S. Army by Florida State University’s Center for Educational Technology during the 1970s. ADDIE is an acronym for the five-phase development program which is analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. Each phase of the ADDIE model is related and interacts with each other.
ADDIE model is an approach that can help those instructional designers or developers to create an effective design by applying that processes on any instructional product. ADDIE model is flexible because it can be used with both individualized and traditional instruction. In addition, phases are modified frequently to match with the user’s requirements. This model also can be employed in combination with other models such as Rapid Application Development (RAD).
Analysis phase is the most important phase and as a foundation for all other phases of instructional design. It will save a huge amount of courses, effort and time if the analysis phase is done before creating the plan, developing, or even implementing. There are four things that need to be analyzed in order to carry out the analysis phase.
Analyze the learner’s skills, characteristics of the target audience.
Analyze the learning environments and learning problems.
Identified the goals for instruction
Identified the need for instruction (select tasks that need to be trained)
The Design phase is using the outputs from the Analyze phase to plan a strategy to develop the instruction. In this phase, the designer will think on the design instruction that can really be effective in the ways that can facilitate people’s learning and also interaction with the materials that provided.
There are some of the elements that may include in a design phase such as writing a target population description, conducting a learning analysis, writing objectives and test items, selecting a delivery system, and also sequencing the instruction. In this phase also, a detailed storyboards and prototypes are often made, and the look and feel, graphic design, user-interface and content are determined.
The output of the design phase will be the inputs for the next phase which is development phase.
Development phase is a phase that depends on both of the analyze phase and design phase. The instructional designers integrate the technology with the educational setting and process. The development phase involves creating the prototype, developing the learning/ training materials, build content, assignments, assessments and build course structure.
Implementation phase is a phase that transforming plan into an action. This phase focuses on developing procedures for training both facilitators and learners. Facilitators should explain the curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery and testing procedures. Student’s preparation includes the training of the use of new software and hardware.
Evaluation phase is the final process in the ADDIE model. It is a phase that measures the effectiveness and efficiency in order to make sure that the goals using the instructional design is meet the learner needs. In the instructional design, the evaluation should actually occur throughout the entire process which is within phases, between phases, and after implementation. There are two types of evaluation which is formative evaluation and summative evaluation.
Formative evaluation is an ongoing evaluation which is during and between the phases. The purpose is to improve the instruction before the final version is implemented.
Summative evaluation is a method for accessing a program at the completion of the program.
2.6.2 Spiral Model
Figure 2.13: Spiral model
(Source: isqtinternational.com, 2016)
Spiral model was originally proposed by Boehm. This Spiral model is a combination of iterative development process model and sequential linear development model like the waterfall model with a very high emphasis on risk analysis. It allows incremental releases of the product or incremental refinement through each of the iteration around the spiral. Spiral model is a risk-driven model which means that the overall success of a project highly depends on the risks analysis phase. Risk analysis requires specific expertise on the every iteration. Therefore, special skills are needed from time to time to review and analyze the project.
In this planning phase, the requirements are gathered. The examples of requirements are Business Requirements Specification (BRS) and Software Requirements Specifications (SRS).
In this analysis phase, a process is undertaken to identify the risk and alternate solutions. At the end of this phase, a prototype will be produced. If there are any risk is found during the risk analysis, then the alternate solutions are suggested and implemented.
Software is developed in this phase, along with testing at the end of the phase. Hence in this phase the development and testing is done.
This phase allows the customer to evaluate the output of the project to date before the project continues to the next spiral.
Advantages of Spiral model: Disadvantages of Spiral model
High amount of risk analysis therefore risk can be avoids.
Good for large and mission-critical projects.
Strong approval and documentation control.
Additional Functionality can be added at a later date.
Software is produced early in the software life cycle.
Can be a costly model to use.
Risk analysis requires highly specific expertise.
Project’s success is highly dependent on the risk analysis phase.
Doesn’t work well for smaller projects.
When to use Spiral model:
When costs and risk evaluation is important
For medium to high-risk projects
Long-term project commitment unwise because of potential changes to economic priorities
Users are unsure of their needs
Requirements are complex
2.6.3 Rapid Application Development Model
Figure 2.14: RAD model
(Source: daaminotes.com, 2017)
The RAD model is based on prototyping and iterative development with no specific planning involved. The process of writing the software itself involves the planning required for developing the product. RAD is focuses on gathering customer requirements through workshops or focus groups, early testing of the prototypes by the customer using iterative concept, reuse of the existing prototypes (components), continuous integration and rapid delivery.
Rapid application development is a software development methodology that uses minimal planning in favor of rapid prototyping. A prototype is a working model that is functionally equivalent to a component of the product. In the RAD model, the functional modules are developed in parallel as prototypes and are integrated to make the complete product for faster product delivery. Since there is no detailed preplanning, it makes it easier to incorporate the changes within the development process.
RAD projects follow iterative and incremental model and have small teams comprising of developers, domain experts, customer representatives and other IT resources working progressively on their component or prototype. The most important aspect for this model to be successful is to make sure that the prototypes developed are reusable.
The business model for the product under development is designed in terms of flow of information and the distribution of information between various business channels. A complete business analysis is performed to find the vital information for business, how it can be obtained, how and when is the information processed and what are the factors driving successful flow of information.
The information gathered in the Business Modeling phase is reviewed and analyzed to form sets of data objects vital for the business. The attributes of all data sets is identified and defined. The relation between these data objects are established and defined in detail in relevance to the business model.
The data object sets defined in the Data Modeling phase are converted to establish the business information flow needed to achieve specific business objectives as per the business model. The process model for any changes or enhancements to the data object sets is defined in this phase. Process descriptions for adding, deleting, retrieving or modifying a data object are given.
The actual system is built and coding is done by using automation tools to convert process and data models into actual prototypes.
Testing and Turnover
The overall testing time is reduced in the RAD model as the prototypes are independently tested during every iteration. However, the data flow and the interfaces between all the components need to be thoroughly tested with complete test coverage. Since most of the programming components have already been tested, it reduces the risk of any major issues.
Advantages of RAD Disadvantages of RAD
Reduced development time.
Increases reusability of components
Quick initial reviews occur
Encourages customer feedback
Integration from very beginning solves a lot of integration issues.
Depends on strong team and individual performances for identifying business requirements.
Only system that can be modularized can be built using RAD
Requires highly skilled developers/designers.
High dependency on modeling skills
Inapplicable to cheaper projects as cost of modeling and automated code generation is very high.
When to use Rapid Application Development:
RAD should be used when there is a need to create a system that can be modularized in 2-3 months of time.
It should be used if there’s high availability of designers for modeling and the budget is high enough to afford their cost along with the cost of automated code generating tools.
RAD SDLC model should be chosen only if resources with high business knowledge are available and there is a need to produce the system in a short span of time (2-3 months).
As a conclusion, there are many existing AR software whether in education or in industry field. This chapter is discussed in detail about the issues that related to the preparation of a new apps development based on the identified weakness of the existing software. The chosen software development process model as a guideline for the development of ARH is ADDIE model. The details phases will be discussed in the Chapter 3.
The development methodology implemented behind the every project’s progress is the keystone to its planning’ success. A suitable development methodology would ensure that the project would go smoothly as planned besides emitting minimal risks that could affect the entire process of development. In this project’s context, the suitable software development methodology is ADDIE Model.
3.2 Research Design
In this research, the software development methodology used was ADDIE model. The research approach was by using quantitative approach which is in the form of questionnaires that distribute to the target user who take the Japanese Communication Language class in UPSI.
3.3 Research Framework
Figure 3.1: Framework diagram
The diagram above described about the framework used to develop an application. In this framework, it contained three phase which is analysis, development and evaluation.
In the analysis phase, the observation approach is used. The syllabus for the Japanese Communication Language class especially for the teaching the Hiragana writing skills will be observed to get the information for developed an AR Hiragana application.
In the development phase, it is involved the ADDIE model. The ADDIE model is start with the analysis phase, design phase, development phase, implementation phase and evaluation phase.
While in the evaluation phase, the evaluation will be conducted by using a questionnaires that involves 20 respondents. The respondents are among the UPSI’s students who are take the Japanese Communication Language class.
3.3.1 Analysis Phase
In this analysis phase, the qualitative approach is used. In this research, the observation is used under the qualitative approach. Observation is used to accomplish the first objective of the project which is identify the requirements needed for the development of AR based mobile apps for Hiragana learning.
In this phase, the syllabus for the Japanese Communication Language class will be observed. This observation will only focused on one of the Japanese’s writing system which is Hiragana as mentioned on the project’s scope. After observed, noticed that there is do not have any AR usage in the teaching and learning Hiragana. This can be proven by the teaching and learning style in the class. The lecturer just use the traditional approach which is by using the slide show, video show or whiteboard to teach the students to learn Hiragana. While the students just listening or watching from the lecturer and then practice to write on their books.
Besides that, the data gathering also was collected from the journals, books, online trusted webpages and also participate in the exhibition of final year project showcase. From the observation in the exhibition, the AR is begins frequently to use in the educational field. Then, information was analyzed and identified the advantages and disadvantages of the existing mobile apps in order to create a new product.
3.3.2 Development Phase
There are many choices of models that can be used as a guidelines in the process of developing mobile apps. For example, ADDIE model, ASSURE model, Spiral model and RAD model. In this case, among those models, ADDIE mode was chosen instead of the rest of the models because it works great as a generic framework.
Figure 3.2: ADDIE model
(Source: trivantis.com, 2011)
According to the N. A. (2015), ADDIE model is one of the most common models used in the instructional design field a guide to produce an effective design. ADDIE model is an approach to help instructional designers, any content’s developer, or teachers to create an effective teaching design by applying the process of ADDIE model on any instructional product. ADDIE Model contains 5 phase of development which is: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.
During the analysis phase, the objectives, problems statements, and all of the related information about usage of AR mobile apps in education was identified.
In this phase, the observation approach will be used towards the Japanese Communication Language class in UPSI. Observation will focused on one of the Japanese’s writing system that is Hiragana. Besides that, the information was collected by using qualitative approach which are by observation from the readings of journals and online web pages. The data also gathering from the participated in final year project showcase held by degree students.
Based from the observation in the final year project showcase, the usage of AR was begins frequently used besides educational fields. Those information is collected and analyzed to identify the advantages and disadvantages to implement AR in the mobile apps to learn Japanese’s Hiragana.
The objectives for this project is used as a guideline for the problem solving. The research about the AR development was done by journal reading, existing related AR apps that have been developed before including the trusted internet resources. The more information has been collected, the much easier for the developer’s work for the next step. The information will be analyzed to further the next objective which is develop an AR mobile apps to learn the Hiragana.
Design phase is the second phase in the ADDIE model. The drafting design specifications, storyboarding of the apps workflow will be describes detail in this phase. In addition, the use of colors, icons, images, texts, animations and sounds must be follow the human computer interaction concepts.
This development phase is the third phase in the ADDIE Model. In this phase, the AR mobile apps was developed based on the information gathered from the analysis phase together with the output from the design phase. The combination of technology requirements and software are necessary within this phase to make sure the project is developed smoothly. Therefore, the software selected to develop this product is Unity 3D.
Unity 3D is an open source software which is can be download freely without using money. Unity is a multiplatform game development tools, design from the start to ease creation. Unity 3D is developed by Unity Technologies. It is a game creation system that comes with an integrated development environment for engineering 2D & 3D games with consistent graphics, amazing layout, intuitive design and engaging game play. Unity 3D is widely used for developing video games for desktops, consoles, mobile devices and even websites.
Implementation phase is the fourth phase in the ADDIE model. In this phase, will determined whether the developed AR mobile apps had meet the user requirements or not. The developed AR mobile apps will be introduced to the target user. They will use it on their own without the outside help to determined how far the creation of its usage. After that, the feedback from the target user will be collect and used as an improvement to the whole application.
For the testing part, a series of testing will be performed to check whether there have any errors or not. Black box testing will be used to test all the function inside the ARH apps to make sure all the function is functional. Black box testing is a testing that focuses on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions.
This is the last phase in the ADDIE model. The purpose of evaluation is to make sure that the developed AR mobile apps is matched to the third objectives that is mentioned in the previous chapter.
In this phase, questionnaires is distributed to 20 respondents that are chosen from the UPSI students who are taking the Japanese Communication Language class. The questionnaires were made in the form of closed-ended questions which requires the respondents to answer it with the optionally answer by using the Likert Scale.
In addition, the evaluation in this phase contains formative evaluation and summative evaluation. The formative evaluation execute during the ongoing and between the phases whereas the summative evaluation execute after the final version of instruction was implemented.
Based on the third objective which is to test the developed mobile apps in terms of functionality, it can be achieved after the accomplishment of the AR mobile apps development. The evaluation will started during the implementation phase that testing for the next improvement before finally published. Then, the real evaluation is during the final phase to test the AR mobile apps in term of functionality that suits to the target users by distributing the 20 sets of questionnaires that is built based on the theory Technology Acceptance Models (TAM). Then, data will be analyzed and taken as the finding research.
3.4 Software and Hardware Tools
Software tools are a program that assists the programmer in the design, code edit, compile and also the debug phase. Hardware tools refer to the physical parts of a computer and the related devices.
3.4.1 Unity 3D
Figure 3.3: Unity
Unity is a feature rich, fully integrated development engine that provides out-of-the-box functionality for the creation of interactive 3D content. You use Unity to assemble your art and assets into scenes and environments; add physics, light, video, audio and post-processing special effects; play test, edit and optimize your game, and when ready, publish to your chosen platforms, such as desktop computers, web browsers, iPhone, iPad, Android, Kinect and CAVE’s™.
(Unity Technologies – https://unity3d.com/unity/industries/sim)
Unity is a cross-platform development which is developed by Unity Technologies. It is primarily used to develop both three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) video games and simulations for computers, consoles, and mobile devices. Unity is initially created for developing games but is now used for a wide range of things in many fields such as: architecture, art, children’s apps, information management, education, entertainment, marketing, medical, military, physical installations, simulations, training, and many more.
Unity 3D is a fully integrated development engine that provides out-of-the-box functionality for the creation of interactive 3D content. Multiple platforms such as PC, Web, iOS, Android and Xbox can be published by using Unity. Complete toolset, intuitive workspace and on- the-fly play testing and editing feature of Unity can makes developers to save their time and effort. The Vuforia AR Extension for Unity will enables vision detection and tracking functionality within the Unity and allows developers to create AR applications.
Figure 3.4: Vuforia(Source: docs.unity3d.com)
Vuforia is a software platform for creating an AR apps. Developers can easily add advanced computer vision functionality to any of the application, allowing it to recognize the images and objects, and interact with spaces in the real world.
Vuforia is a cross-platform Augmented Reality (AR) and Mixed Reality (MR) application development platform, with robust tracking and performance on a variety of hardware (mobile devices and mixed reality Head Mounted Displays (HMD)). Unity’s integration with Vuforia allows to create vision apps and games for Android and iOS using a drag-and-drop authoring workflow.
There are some marker types that commonly used in Vuforia applications:
In AR or MR, markers are images or objects registered with the application which act as information triggers in the application. When device’s camera recognizes these markers in the real world (while running an AR or MR application), this triggers the display of virtual content over the world position of the marker in the camera view. Marker-based tracking can use a variety of different marker types, including QR codes, physical reflective markers, image targets and 2D tags. The simplest and most common type of marker that usually used in game applications is an image target.
Image target is a specific type of marker that normally used in Marker-based tracking. When manually register the images with the application, it will act as triggers that display the virtual content. The images that containing distinct shapes with complex outlines will makes it easier for image recognition and tracking algorithms to recognize them.
Applications using the markerless tracking are more commonly for location-based or position-based AR or MR. This types of tracking depends on technologies such as GPS, accelerometer, gyroscope and more complex image processing algorithms, to place virtual objects or information in the environment.
As a conclusion, this chapter described detail about the chosen methodology which is ADDIE model. Phase analysis is about observation on the teaching Hiragana class. Phase development is about the developed of application by using ADDIE model.Phase Evaluation is about to evaluate the AR application in term of functionality. The next chapter will describe detail about the development of this AR application.