There are many type of microorganisms such as a virus, bacterium, prior, fungus or protozoan and these enter the body either wrought breathing them in through your nose, in through your mouth as food and into your digestive system or through a break in the skin such as a simple cut. These pathogens cause disease in our body by releasing toxins which can damage our cells. An example Of a toxin is Cholera. Cholera is a bacteria that is taken in by us humans when we eat or drink foods that are contaminated.This then produces a toxin which in itself is a protein and this protein will then bind to the channels of the epithelial cells in the small intestine.
This binding causes some of the protein channels to stay open and therefore hollered ions can then move from the epithelial cell into the lumen of the small intestine via diffusion. This then means that the water potential in the epithelial cells in higher than that of the lumen and so water moves from these cells and into the lumen via osmosis.Water is lost because of this and this in itself causes dehydration and diarrhea which are the symptoms of Cholera. Another disease which is caused by a pathogen is that known as Tuberculosis. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is one of the main types of tuberculosis.
This bacteria is transmitted in droplets and these droplets are oaken in through breathing and then are engulfed by phagocytes. These bacteria are then encased in tubercle where they will be dormant and not replicating in primary TAB. If mispronunciation occurs then the bacteria is activated and starts to replicate.This bacteria will destroy alveoli and capillaries which leads to cavities in the lungs. This damage will therefore lead to less surface area and so therefore less diffusion and an increased diffusion distance. The damage allows the bacteria to enter blood and spread to other organs. Another cause of disease is our lifestyle choices.
Lifestyle disease is aid to be associated with the way a person or a group of people lives. One disease like this is called Emphysema. If a person smokes they are likely to gain this Emphysema disease.When a person smokes, the chemicals within their cigarette irritates the lungs and causes a loss of elastic tissue. With the loss of elastic tissue the alveoli will break down and reduce the surface area for diffusion. The alveolar walls will also thicken which gives an increased distance in diffusion distance. Alveoli now cannot spring back because they have lost their elasticity and this makes it more difficult to expel air.
Due to not being able to expel air, you will reduce the diffusion gradient as less air i! Replenished and so less air leaves the lungs.This leads to less oxygen into the blood, which means less respiration so less TAP being produced. Other lifestyle choices such as lack of exercise or the amount of fatty foods we eat can also lead to disease such as atherosclerosis. This disease causes a build up of fatty deposits in the arteries. The OLD cholesterol in the blood which comes from the fatty food we each settle themselves in the epithelial layer o the artery.
This causes a response from the macrophages which will digest the cholesterol and create a fatty streak within the artery wall.The inflammatory response continues and a fibrous cap forms, and as this continues the artery wall bulges and forms an thermal. This will affect the way the blood is transported because the flow is restricted by the change in the shape of the artery. This can cause life threatening issues such as myocardial infarction’s. If you change your lifestyle such as what foods you eat, e.
G. Less foods with low OLD or you exercise more then the chances of aiming this disease is reduced significantly. However, even a healthy person can get this disease and scientists are still unsure as why.Our genetic make up could be an answer to this issue. These genes which cause disease could be due to random mutations or they can be caused by inheriting faulty gene from our parents. A disease such as cancer is a result of faults within a gene.
Random mutations of the genes cause significant changes to the cell, and these mutations usually occur because something goes wrong whilst the cell is dividing. These mutations then cause a cancerous cell to begin dividing at paid rate which causes a disease to spread.However, cancer genes can be inherited but only in the sense that you inherit a gene that already contains some sort of a fault. The older you get the more chance that this faulty gene will become cancerous.
One other disease that can be caused by faults with our genetics is that such as people inheriting autoimmunity from their parents which then leads to Type 1 Diabetes. This means that the faulty immune system makes antibodies that attack the insulin making cells within the pancreas, therefore meaning blood sugar levels cannot be controlled.