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Candida, is a yeast genus, they are oval, or spherical, thin-walled cells in shape. It can form pseudohyphae, true hyphae, and breed via budding. Blastopores, arise during the hyphal growth, they are type of vegetative hyphae. Chlamydospores, type of an asexual spores, produced in unfavorable condition. Candida genus have total 154 species, six out of them are most common in human infections such as Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, and Candida lusitaniae, are also isolated as causative agents of Candida infections in humans. Candida species especially effect immunocompromised. According recently published study which stated that the cases occur per year is dramatically increased up to 207% in United State, and Pakistan from 1979 to 2012. A significant morbidity, and mortality is associated with these infections, and it is evidenced that fungal diseases are major public health problem (Odds, 1988; Thein, Seneviratne, Samaranayake, & Samaranayake, 2009).
1.10.1 Virulence factors: –
Pathogenesis is caused by Candida species due to different virulence factors. Few of them are different hydrolytic enzymes such protease and lipase, dimorphism, biofilm formation and adherence ability (Fidel, Vazquez, & Sobel, 1999).
Candidiasis, is caused by the members of the genus Candida, it may be a primary or secondary infection. The disease has an extending spectrum from acute, to sub-acute, and chronic to episodic. These infections may systemic, including, endocarditis, septicemia, (meningitis) and may be local infection including mouth, vagina, scalp, nail, fingers, throat, and bronchi (lungs). Candida genus has over 150 species, but only few are pathogenic to humans, causing candidiasis. Candida albicans, is the most common specie among all other Candida species, isolated from human diseases. According to different studies 80% of Candida albicans were isolated among all types of candidiasis, but from last two decades a remarkably increase in the non-albicans Candida infection (FIDEL JR, 1998).
Other common clinical diseases are oral Candidiasis “Thrush”, vaginal candidiasis and banalities, bronchial and pulmonary candidiasis, alimentary candidiasis, gastritis, peritonitis, enteric candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, aronychia and onychomycosis, candidal granuloma, endocarditis, meningitis and septicemia.

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