Canada is among theglobe’s most open-minded nations for immigrants and has one of the best percapita admission rates.It has a long and richexperience of immigrants that is engraved within sense of nationhood.On an average it hasoffered permanent residency to approximately 200,000 immigrants and refugeesper year. The goal of immigration system has always been to encourage youthful,bilingual and high-skilled immigration in order to construct its human capitalagainst Canada’s aging labour. Canada has earned a global respect for an “openarms” attitude.
But, after the 9/11 terrorist attacks, U.S. stand was to secureits borders. The terrorists that were arrested in June included the Muslims offoreign nationalities. There were many questions that were raised aboutCanada’s immigration system and its capability of absorbing those immigrants inCanada.
Canada’s Evolution in Immigration Policies Similar to the U.S., Canada is a few of those countrieswhere immigration has evolved it’s society and culture. With its smallpopulation and huge area of unsettled land, Canada’s immigration policy wasinitiated with a desire for expansion.After providing free immigration to immigrants from 1867to 1895, Canada understood the need to put a filter on the immigrants. Canadabegan to manage its immigration policies in the late 19th century.It allowed the immigration to “white” American, British and the Europeanapplicants and restricted the immigration from rest of the world who could notprove themselves to be European. These policies included many Immigration Actslike Immigration Act of 1910, 1919 and 1952.
In the early 20th century, the regulations of ImmigrationPolicies were overturned as they were agreed to be racist and not fair criteriato classify individuals.Canada began to limit the immigrants and adopted policiesthat did not classify applicants based on their ethnic origins.In 1967, a points system was introduced to determine ifan applicant is eligible to enter into the country. The preference was given tothe people who were educated and speak either English or French.These policies were rewritten and Immigration Act of 1976was made. This act made Canada emerge out to be the destination for immigrantsall over the world. This new act was built on three admission blocks : independentapplicants were assessed on the basis of points awarded for employment skills,education, and language abilities rather national or “racial” origin;sponsorship by close family members; and refugee status.
This act emphasized greatly upon family reunification andhumanitarian concern over economic interest. In 2001, this Act got replaced by Immigration and RefugeeProtection Act. This policy emphasized more on education, language andadaptability. This helped Canada build a wall against the unwanted immigrantsto the country. This act influenced the immigration flow into the country.There were many immigrants that Canada was looking forward to immigrate intothe country and build the nation. This Act gave Canada the required skilledwork force that could develop the country. This Act influenced many immigrantsand in couple of years, 60 percent of those immigrants were found to be highlyeducated immigrants.
The number of Economic immigrants drastically rose afterthis Act compared to Families or Refugee status. Distribution ofImmigration Policies · Economic(57.5percent): The selection inthis category is laid upon three factors namely :- high level of education, jobexperience and language skills. The program that has helped the country themost to bring in Economic type of immigrants is Federal Skilled Worker Program.This program has brought in more than 81 percent of the economic immigrants tothe country. This program has set point system criteria including parameters ofeducation, age, proficiency in English or French and adaptabilities.
Theseimmigrants may be termed as building blocks of Canada. The economic immigrants are the ripen fruit to the economy· Familyreunification(28 percent): This includes spouses and children joiningthe family members who are already living in Canada. This may be termed as thesecond largest group of immigrants in Canada. These immigrants may or may notaffect the country’s economics. This type of immigration offer good opportunityto the new citizens by giving them a chance to reunite with their family.
· Refugees(14.5percent): This is the smallest groups of immigrants that areadmitted to Canada. This includes both humanitarian resettlement programs andAsylum protection. The Refugees and the Asylum have been a constant componentof the immigration program. The country categorizes the refugees into two partsnamely: – resettled refugees and asylum seekers. The country remains verycareful when dealing with these types of immigrants.
They must be referred by atrusted organization like the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.They must clear at least two of the face to face interviews, biometrics, travelhistory check and database crosscheck. The screening is also done by CSIS, CBSAand the RCMP to make sure that the immigrants are safe to be granted a refugeestatus to come to Canada. In 2016, there were 15,000 such applicants, the thirdof these applicants were rejected and that’s not even counting the hundreds ofapplications that were already terminated due to criminal records or theyabandoned their claims. How government helps immigrantsCanada providesimmigrants with language training and access to Canada’s national health careand social welfare programs. Canadian government is more concerned about theeconomy of the country and therefore keeps a close eye on the economicindicators. The economic indicators indicate that immigrants arrived in the1990s have had more problems and difficulties coping with the economic successof those who arrived in 1980s.
Some studies alsoshow that some of the skilled immigrants despite their academic excellence failin getting a job in Canada. The reason could be lack of language proficiency.The other valid reason for this could be that the immigration policies stressmore on the academic’s part which are the core knowledge rather than the softskills or the presentation skills. So people are able to sit in the interviewbut lack of soft skill go against them getting hired.
Canada’s immigration andcitizens policies provide them with language classes that are funded by thegovernment. This helps these immigrants develop their skills and get employedeasily.Another majorproblem that rose was the income level. It was seen that the non-whiteCanadians were hired on a lower income level when compared to their whiteCanadian counterparts. This problem got fade away by time.
When the immigrantskept rising, the second or the third-generation immigrants came and thediscrimination got less and less prominent. The attitude of the general publicalso changed and got better year after year. After Justin Trudeau became theprime minister a lot changed in the prospective of the public. He was able to conveyhis message about immigration and immigrants to the public very efficiently.
Canada’s policies on asylum seekers?Since the world warII, Canada has admitted refugees. It is known for having relatively liberalpolicies on asylum. Any person who arrives in Canada is eligible to apply forrefugee status anywhere in the country.There are two partsto this process. First, the claim is presented to the Citizenship andImmigration Canada(CIC). Then the CIC takes a decision on whether the claimmade by the individual is eligible to be referred to the Immigration andRefugee Board(IRB).
Then the final decision is made by this board if the personcan be given a refugee status or not. If person receives a refugee status thenthe person is eligible to apply for permanent residency.In the past decadeCanada has become one of the few countries to admit refugees into theircountry. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees have estimated that230,000 refugees and asylum seekers are admitted in Canada. The Validity of the OppositionThere could be someconcerns regarding the immigration policies of Canada such as security, threatto economy, loss of culture, illegal work, admitting terrorist and depletion ofresources. However, the openness and law enforcement have completely rubbishedthe concerns and today Canada is diverse community country supporting multiplecultures, language and nationalities. It has also been able to balance itstalent requirement and made the people responsible, by partnering with them andoffering them immigration and citizenship.
This partnership process has beenappreciated by the world and made Canada the best country to stay. Immigrationhas also helped Canada improve its economy through investments. ConclusionTo conclude, theworld is moving to a global concept restoring faith in humanity and supportingall shades of life and people. Canada has emerged as a true example ensuringbenefit of all on a larger platform.Canada has shown aconstant growth and has invited the refugees and immigrants from all over theworld. Immigration has shown a positive effect on the Canadian economy and itspeople, thus validating the immigration policies. This gives Canada the titleit really deserves – “The Land of opportunity”.